Verbal Ability – Summary – For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced


Slot – 1 – VA


Q. The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential (I.Q.); this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper-and-pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.

  1. Biologists have questioned the view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the ways in which what is inherited.
  2. Biologists have criticised that conventional wisdom that individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential
  3. Biologists have questioned the long-standing view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the attempts to estimate it’s heritability.
  4. Biologists have started questioning psychologists’ view of ‘intelligence’ as a measurable immutable characteristic of an individual.
Answer: 3
Solution:
In this passage, biologists have questioned the embracement of one view of intelligence and the fact that this intelligence is heavily influenced by hereditary.
Option 1 distorts the meaning of the passage with the option implying that Biologists are questioning the ways in which intelligence is inherited. They are simply questioning if intelligence is mainly hereditary or not. Eliminate option 1.
In option 2 there is no mention of biologists questioning the fact that intelligence is a single entity. Secondly, option 2 makes an assertion not made by biologists in the passage. The option mentions that biologists have criticized the notion that individuals are born with more or less intelligence. Actually, the fact is that biologists have not questioned that fact that individuals are born with more or less intelligence but have questioned the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait (such as intelligence) in humans. Eliminate option 2.
Option 4 does not mention the biologists view that intelligence is not a single entity. Eliminate option 4.
Option 3 includes the two major points of the passage – biologists questioning the fact that intelligence is a single entity and attempts to estimate its heritability.


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