# Learn the Basics of Time, Speed & Distance for CAT Exam

Monday, April 22nd, 2019 I guess my first fascination with problems of Time, Speed and Distance began when I first saw Henna. An important part of the story line  if you can call it that, saw Rishi Kapoor floating from India to Pakistan without drowning. I remember arguing with my friends that if could float for that long – he could swim back to India as well. My friends nullified the argument by saying: Speed River > Speed Rishi Kapoor I know that the reference is a little dated for most readers of this post, but Zeba Bhaktiyar made me look beyond reason. In this post we will discuss some of the ideas that have helped me solve TSD problems without forming too many equations.

## Funda 1: Average Speed

We know that the average speed in a journey is given by (Total Distance Covered) / (Total Time Taken); but there are few special cases which might help in solving questions –

If the distance covered is constant (in each part of the journey, then the average speed is Harmonic Mean of the values.

If the time taken is constant (in each part of the journey then the average speed is Arithmetic Mean of the values. ## Funda 2: Using Progressions (Arithmetic & Harmonic)

In many questions, you come across a situation when a person is going from Point A to Point B at various speeds and taking various times. We know that if distance is constant, speed and time are inversely proportional to each other. But, this information can also be used to deduce these two facts –

• If the various speeds which are mentioned are in AP, then the corresponding times taken will be in HP.
• If the various speeds which are mentioned are in HP, then the corresponding times taken will be in AP.

Let us use these ideas to solve couple of quant questions.

Eg 2.1 Arun, Barun and Kiranmala start from the same place and travel in the same direction at speeds of 30,40 and 60 km per hour respectively. Barun starts two hours after Arun. If Barun and Kiranmala overtake Arun at the same instant, how many hours after Arun did Kiranmala start? [CAT 2006]

Note: Arun Barun Kiranmala is a 1968 Bangladeshi film. Now you can guess what inspires CAT question setters.

Solution As you can see that the speeds are in HP, so we can say that the times taken will be in AP. Time difference between Arun and Barun is 2 hours, so the time difference between Barun and Kiranbala will also be 2 hours. Hence, Kiranbala started 4 hours after Arun.

Eg 2.2 Rishi Kapoor can swim a certain course against the river flow in 84 minutes; he can swim the same course with the river flow in 9 minutes less than he can swim in still water. How long would he take to swim the course with the river flow?

Solution Let us say Speed of the Rishi Kapoor in still water is ‘RK’ and Speed of the river is ‘R’. Hence, Rishi Kapoor’s speeds against the river flow, in still water and with the river flow are: RK – R, RK and RK + R. As you can see, they are in AP. Hence, the corresponding times taken will be in HP. Let us say that the time taken to row down with the stream is ‘t’, then 84, t+9 and t are in HP. So, ## Funda 3: Special Case

Let us say that two bodies ‘a’ & ‘b’ start at the same time from two points P & Q towards each other and meet at a point R in between. After meeting at R, ‘a’ takes ta time to reach its destination (Q) and ‘b’ takes tb time to reach its destination (P); then. Also, the time taken by ‘a’ & ‘b’ to meet (i.e. to reach point R from P & Q respectively) is given by:

Note: The same formulae will be valid if two bodies ‘a’ & ‘b’ start at different times from two points P & Q towards each other. They meet at a point R in between after travelling for ta and tb time respectively. After meeting, they take the same amount of time (‘t’) to reach their respective destinations (Q & P).

I hope that these ideas will help you reduce the number of equations that you form while solving TSD problems if not completely eliminate them.

## Other posts related to Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic

### CAT Questions related to Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic

All questions from CAT Exam Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time, Speed and Distance – Q1: A motorbike leaves point A at 1 pm and moves towards point B at a uniform speed.
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time, Speed and Distance – Q2: Arun drove from home to his hostel at 60 miles per hour. While returning home he drove halfway along the same route at a speed of 25 miles per hour
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time, Speed and Distance – Q3: In a 10 km race. A, B,and C, each running at uniform speed, get the gold, silver, and bronze medals, respectively. If A beats B by 1 km and B beats C by 1 km, then by how many metres does A beat C?
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time, Speed and Distance – Q4: A man travels by a motor boat down a river to his office and back. With the speed of the river unchanged, if he doubles the speed of his motor boat
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time, Speed and Distance – Q5: A man leaves his home and walks at a speed of 12 km per hour, reaching the railway station 10 minutes after the train had departed.
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Profit and Loss
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Time and Work
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Mixtures
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Percentages
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Pipes and Cisterns
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Averages
Quantitative Aptitude – Arithmetic – Ratios

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