*Thursday, May 23rd, 2019*

Syllogism is an influential concept of CAT. It has its role in logical reasoning and verbal ability section as well. There are approximately 3-4 questions based on it. And these many questions can play vital role in upgrading your percentile. Thus, it’s important that you understand this topic well so that you can score good in the exam. Let’s first understand what does syllogism mean and then I will tell you some useful techniques that will make solving questions on this topic a facile job for you.

Syllogism is a Greek synonym of the word conclusion or inference. A more proper definition of syllogism is an argument the conclusion of which is supported by two propositions, of which one contains the term that is predicate of the conclusion, and other contains the term that is subject of the conclusion; common to the both premises is the term that is excluded from the conclusion. Now, this definition of syllogism seems to be a bit confusing but, as this article proceeds you will one by one understand the deeper meaning of this definition. Before illustrating the example of syllogism, first understand what is meant by proposition? A proposition is a sentence that makes a statement and gives a relation between two terms. Each proposition has three parts that forms the sentence structure i.e. subject, predicate and relation between both. Consider these two propositions:

Conclusion: **All Rajasthani’s are Kind.**

Let’s interpret the conclusion in terms of definition of Syllogism. Now in the sentence, All Rajasthani’s are Kind you can notice that the predicate of the proposition 2 became the predicate of conclusion (the word Kind) and the subject of the proposition 1 became the subject of conclusion (Rajasthani’s) and the common relation between the two (Indians) is missing from it. Thus, this conclusion exactly follows the definition of Syllogism. Now, you might have noticed use of word All in both the propositions. This type of proposition is called categorial propositions. The categorial proposition is further divided into two types.

- Universal Proposition either fully includes or fully excludes the subject. Ex. All boys are tall (positive), no kid is notorious (negative).
- Particular Proposition either partly include or exclude the subject while making the statement. Ex. Some oranges are sweet (positive), Some people are not intelligent (negative).

Now the questions in the exam will consist of two or more propositions that will be followed up by two or more conclusions and you have to answer which conclusion follows the given propositions such as

Propositions: **All tables are chalks.**

**All chalks are chairs.**

Conclusions: **All chairs are tables.**

**All tables are chairs.**

Give answer:

1. If only conclusion 1 follows.

2. If only conclusion 2 follows.

3. If either 1 or 2 follows.

4. If neither 1 nor 2 follows.

5. Both 1 and 2 follows.

Now the question arises how can we know that which of the above options is correct. There are two ways to determine that which conclusion will follow.

The Venn Diagram Method.

The Analytical Method.

Let’s first fathom the Venn Diagram method. We all have come across the Venn diagram as part of set theory in our high school math’s. But those of you who are still unaware of it, Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of mathematical or logic sets using circles or closed curves. Instead of directly hoping on devising the method first learn the representation of propositions using Venn diagram. As discussed earlier, there are two types of propositions Universal and Particular which are further distinguished into the positive and negative kinds of proposition respectively. These 4 kinds can be represented through Venn Diagram. Grab a look at the table below that illustrates the distinct types of propositions and its pictorial representation using Venn diagram.

The above propositions on the basis of above table can be summarized to following implications given below.

Using the above two tables we can easily form the conclusion from any number of propositions following two simple steps. Consider the example given above of tables, chairs and chalks. There are two propositions in the example:

Propositions: **All tables are chalks.**

**All chalks are chairs.**

Step 1: Draw Venn diagram of the both above propositions separately.

Now in this example, let T = tables, Chalks = CH, Chairs = CR. The first proposition says All tables are chalks. Therefore, it’s representation would be

Now analyze the figure and inspect which conclusions can be drawn from it. Here only second conclusion i.e. All tables are chairs is correct. Therefore, the right option of this question is only conclusion 2 follows. The Venn diagram method is very interesting and easy. The above example was a basic one but in exam questions will be more complex and complicated. You can solve them on the same lines as the above question using the two step Venn diagram method.

Let’s now move on the second one the analytical method. It is also two steps method. First consider another set of propositions and later come up with the conclusion.

Proposition: **Some posters are good looking.**

**All posters are expensive.**

Step 1: Aligning the given sentences.

Now by aligning it means that propositions should be written in such a way that the common term is the predicate of the first proposition and the subject of the second. In the above propositions, the common term is posters and for aligning we want that poster should be predicate of the first one. But here, it’s subject of proposition one. We will use conversion technique for that.

The rules for conversion are as follows: –

The subject becomes the predicate and the predicate becomes the subject.

The type of given proposition is changed according to the given table below.

A proposition of type |
When converted become proposition of type |

I. | III. |

II. | II. |

III. | III. |

IV. | These types cannot be converted. |

Firstly, we will check that whether the propositions are aligned or not! Now in above example, the predicate of proposition 1 is not the subject of second one. Hence propositions are not aligned. So, for alignment we will convert the proposition 1 as using the above rules we get,

Proposition: **Some good looking are posters.**

**All posters are expensive.**

Step 2: Use the following table to draw conclusions.

If the first proposition is of type |
And the second proposition is of type |
Then the conclusion will be |

I. | I. | I. |

I. | II. | II. |

I. | III. | No definite conclusion |

I. | IV. | No definite conclusion |

II. | I. | IV.* |

II. | II. | No definite conclusion |

II. | III. | IV.* |

II. | IV. | No definite conclusion |

III. | I. | III. |

III. | II. | IV. |

III. | III. | No definite conclusion |

III. | IV. | No definite conclusion |

IV. | I. Or II. Or III. | No definite conclusion |

Note: IV. * means the conclusion is of type IV. But the format is directly opposite the standard IV. Type. In this case the subject of the conclusion is the predicate of second sentence and the predicate of conclusion is the subject of first proposition.

Again, let’s move to our example here in this case using the aligned propositions and using the above table we get III. + I. = I.

Therefore, the conclusion will be ‘Some good looking are expensive’.

In the above prescribed way, we can solve numerous analytical problem. Both the above method is equally efficient you can choose either of the one as per your convenience and understanding. Or, you can use both, one to solve the problem and other one to cross check the answer. But don’t waste too much time on this. Follow this practice only if you have ample of time left in exam or you are really confused.

Initially, you might face problems solving the problems of syllogism but with time and practice you will nail it!

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All questions from CAT Exam Verbal Reasoning

Verbal Reasoning – Summary

Q1: To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood

Q2: A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures.

Q3: For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years.

Q4: North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds

Q5: Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions.

Q6: A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass

Verbal Reasoning – Parajumbles

Q1: The process of handing down implies not a passive transfer, but some contestation in defining what exactly is to be handed down.

Q2: Scientists have for the first time managed to edit genes in a human embryo to repair a genetic mutation

Q3: The study suggests that the disease did not spread with such intensity, but that it may have driven human

Q4: This visual turn in social media has merely accentuated this announcing instinct of ours

Q5: The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.

Q6: Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations similar to ones that food

Q7: This has huge implications for the health care system as it operates today

Q8: Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning

Verbal Reasoning – Odd One Out

Q1: People who study children’s language spend a lot of time watching how babies react to the speech they hear

Q2: Neuroscientists have just begun studying exercise’s impact within brain cells — on the genes themselves.

Q3: The water that made up ancient lakes and perhaps an ocean was lost.

Q4: Although we are born with the gift of language, research shows that we are surprisingly unskilled when it comes to communicating with others.

Q5: Over the past fortnight, one of its finest champions managed to pull off a similar impression.

Q6: Those geometric symbols and aerodynamic swooshes are more than just skin deep.

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