Reading Comprehension – The claims advanced here may be condensed


Slot – 1 – RC



The claims advanced here may be condensed into two assertions: [first, that visual] culture is what images, acts of seeing, and attendant intellectual, emotional, and perceptual sensibilities do to build, maintain, or transform the worlds in which people live. [And second, that the] study of visual culture is the analysis and interpretation of images and the ways of seeing (or gazes) that configure the agents, practices, conceptualities, and institutions that put images to work. . . .

Accordingly, the study of visual culture should be characterized by several concerns. First, scholars of visual culture need to examine any and all imagery – high and low, art and nonart. . . . They must not restrict themselves to objects of a particular beauty or aesthetic value. Indeed, any kind of imagery may be found to offer up evidence of the visual construction of reality. . . .

Second, the study of visual culture must scrutinize visual practice as much as images themselves, asking what images do when they are put to use. If scholars engaged in this enterprise inquire what makes an image beautiful or why this image or that constitutes a masterpiece or a work of genius, they should do so with the purpose of investigating an artist’s or a work’s contribution to the experience of beauty, taste, value, or genius. No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo. They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value. But study of the critical, artistic, and popular reception of works by such artists as Michelangelo and Leonardo can shed important light on the meaning of these artists and their works for many different people. And the history of meaning-making has a great deal to do with how scholars as well as lay audiences today understand these artists and their achievements. Third, scholars studying visual culture might properly focus their interpretative work on lifeworlds by examining images, practices, visual technologies, taste, and artistic style as constitutive of social relations. The task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world. . . . Important methodological implications follow: ethnography and reception studies become productive forms of gathering information, since these move beyond the image as a closed and fixed meaning-event. . . .

Fourth, scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation. Vision is a socially and a biologically constructed operation, depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly. . . . Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.
Finally, the scholar of visual culture seeks to regard images as evidence for explanation, not as epiphenomena

Q.1 Which set of keywords below most closely captures the arguments of the passage?
  1. Imagery, Visual Practices, Lifeworlds, Structures of Perception.
  2. Visual Culture, Aesthetic Value, Lay Audience, Visual Experience.
  3. Visual Construction of Reality, Work of Genius, Ethnography, Epiphenomena
  4. Scholars, Social Analysis, Michelangelo and Leonardo, Interpretive Devices.
Answer: 1

Q.2 “Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.” In light of the passage, which one of the following statements best conveys the meaning of this sentence?
  1. . Images are meaningful visual experiences when they have a foundation of covenants seeing them.
  2. Sight as a meaningful visual experience is possible when there is a foundational condition established in images of covenants.
  3. Sight becomes a meaningful visual experience because of covenants of meaningfulness that we establish with the images we see.
  4. The way we experience sight is through images operated on by meaningful covenants
Answer: 3

Q.3 “No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo.” In light of the passage, which one of the following interpretations of this sentence is the most accurate?
  1. Social analytical accounts of people like Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot explain their genius.
  2. Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot be subjected to social analysis because of their genius.
  3. Socially existing beings cannot be analysed, unlike the art of Michelangelo or Leonardo which can.
  4. No analyses exist of Michelangelo’s or Leonardo’s social accounts.
Answer: 1

Q.4 All of the following statements may be considered valid inferences from the passage, EXCEPT?
  1. visual culture is not just about how we see, but also about how our visual practices can impact and change the world.
  2. artifacts are meaningful precisely because they help to construct the meanings of the world for us.
  3. . understanding the structures of perception is an important part of understanding how visual cultures work.
  4. studying visual culture requires institutional structures without which the structures of perception cannot be analysed.
Answer: 4

Q.5 Which one of the following best describes the word “epiphenomena” in the last sentence of the passage?
  1. Phenomena supplemental to the evidence.
  2. Overarching collections of images.
  3. Visual phenomena of epic proportions
  4. Phenomena amenable to analysis.
Answer: 1

Solutions:

Q.1 The passage begins with what images or visual cultures do (they transform lives), then moves on to the second point about the study of visual practices or what the images do when they are put to use. The third point in the study of visual cultures is life worlds and the fourth point in the study of visual cultures is about the structures of perception of images depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly. Thus, option 1 has the set of keywords (the four essential points about the study of visual practices) that most closely captures the arguments of the passage.

Options 2, 3 and 4 do not have this set of keywords in the correct order and therefore can be eliminated.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Q.2 Covenant in this context means a pact, treaty or pledge. The sentence implies the fact that seeing (or sight) functions on the pact of meaningfulness that we establish with the images we see. Or in other words we make sense of the images we see because of the foundation of pacts with images embedded within us. This explanation is in conformity with option 3.

Options 1, 2 and 4 can thus be discarded.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Q.3 The sentence can be rewritten as, “Social analytical accounts of Michelangelo or Leonardo are insufficient in explaining their genius.” Why is this so? Because they were unique so a study of these artists cannot be comprehensive or all-encompassing. Refer to the extract immediately after the sentence given above, “They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value.” Or in other words they were geniuses and the works of geniuses cannot be explained fully. This explanation is in consonance with option 1.

Option 2 is incorrect. Genius artists such as Michelangelo or Leonardo can be subjected to social analysis. It is only that social analysis will not be able to fully explain their artistic works.

Option 3 is incorrect and contradicts the assertion made in the passage that the art of Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot be subjected to a full social analysis.

Option 4 distorts the meaning of the sentence given above. Social analyses of Michelangelo or Leonardo have been made but were found to be insufficient in explaining their genius. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Q.4 Option 1 is a valid inference. Refer to the following extract, “The claims advanced here may be condensed into two assertions: [first, that visual] culture is what images, acts of seeing, and attendant intellectual, emotional, and perceptual sensibilities do to build, maintain, or transform the worlds in which people live.” Eliminate option 1.

Option 2 is also a valid inference. Refer to the following extract, “The task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world…” Eliminate option 2.

Option 3, too, is a valid inference. Refer to the following extract, “Fourth, scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation.” Eliminate option 3.

The inference made in option 4 cannot be gleaned from the passage. There is no mention of institutional structures in the passage with regard to visual cultures.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Q.5 Epiphenomena or the singular epiphenomenon means a secondary phenomenon accompanying another and caused by it. This meaning is in conformity with option 1.

Therefore, options 2, 3 and 4 can be eliminated.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

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