Verbal Ability – Summary – Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

  1. Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and is close to the natural development of twins where the embryo splits into two identical twins.
  2. Artificial embryo twinning is just like the natural development of twins, where during fertilization twins are formed.
  3. Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech unlike the natural development of identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.
  4. Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and mimetic of the natural development of genetically identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.

Answer:

Option(4)

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Verbal Ability – Summary – Production and legitimation of scientific

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Production and legitimation of scientific knowledge can be approached from a number of perspectives. To study knowledge production from the sociology of professions perspective would mean a focus on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge. The professions-approach informed earlier research on managerial occupation, business schools and management knowledge. It however tends to reify institutional power structures in its understanding of the links between knowledge and authority. Knowledge production is restricted in the perspective to the selected members of the professional community, most notably to the university faculties and professional colleges. Power is understood as a negative mechanism, which prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas and information as legitimate knowledge.

  1. The professions-approach has been one of the most relied upon perspective in the study of management knowledge production.
  2. Professions-approach focuses on the creation of institutions of higher education and disciplines to promote knowledge production
  3. The study of knowledge production can be done through many perspectives.
  4. Professions-approach aims at the institutionalization of knowledge but restricts knowledge production as a function of a select few.

Answer:

Option(4)

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Verbal Ability – Summary – The conceptualization of landscape

Verbal Ability – Summary

The conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object first occurred in Europe and is historically related to the European conceptualization of the organism, particularly the human body, as a geometric object with parts having a rational, three-dimensional organization and integration. The European idea of landscape appeared before the science of landscape emerged, and it is no coincidence that Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who studied the structure of the human body, also facilitated an understanding of the structure of landscape. Landscape which had been a subordinate background to religious or historical narratives, became an independent genre or subject of art by the end of sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  1. The Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art.
  2. Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century.
  3. The three-dimensional understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape.
  4. The study of landscape as an independent genre was aided by the Renaissance artists.

Answer:

Option(4)

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Verbal Ability – Summary – The early optimism about sport’s

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

The early optimism about sport’s deterrent effects on delinquency was premature as researchers failed to find any consistent relationships between sports participation and deviance. As the initial studies were based upon cross-sectional data and the effects captured were short-term, it was problematic to test and verify the temporal sequencing of events suggested by the deterrence theory. The correlation between sport and delinquency could not be disentangled from class and cultural variables known. Choosing individuals to play sports in the first place was problematic, which became more acute in the subsequent decades as researchers began to document just how closely sports participation was linked to social class indicators.

  1. Sports participation is linked to class and cultural variables such as education, income, and social capital.
  2. Contradicting the previous optimism, latter researchers have proved that there is no consistent relationship between sports participation and deviance.
  3. Statistical and empirical weaknesses stand in the way of inferring any relationship between sports participation and deviance.
  4. There is a direct relationship between sport participation and delinquency but it needs more empirical evidence.

Answer:

Option(3)

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Verbal Ability – Summary – Should the moral obligation to rescue

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Should the moral obligation to rescue and aid persons in grave peril, felt by a few, be enforced by the criminal law? Should we follow the lead of a number of European countries and enact bad Samaritan laws? Proponents of bad Samaritan laws must overcome at least three different sorts of obstacles. First, they must show the laws are morally legitimate in principle, that is, that the duty to aid others is a proper candidate for legal enforcement. Second, they must show that this duty to aid can be defined in a way that can be fairly enforced by the courts. Third, they must show that the benefits of the laws are worth their problems, risks and costs.

  1. Everyone agrees that people ought to aid others, the only debate is whether to have a law on it.
  2. If bad Samaritan laws are found to be legally sound and enforceable they must be enacted.
  3. A number of European countries that have successfully enacted bad Samaritan laws may serve as model statutes.
  4. Bad Samaritan laws may be desirable but they need to be tested for legal soundness.

Answer

Option (4)

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Verbal Ability – Summary – A Japanese government panel announced

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position:

A Japanese government panel announced that it recommends regulating only genetically modified organisms that have had foreign genes permanently introduced into their genomes and not those whose endogenous genes have been edited. The only stipulation is that researchers and businesses will have to register their modifications to plants or animals with the government, with the exception of microbes cultured in contained environments. Reactions to the decision are mixed. While lauding the potential benefits of genome editing, an editorial opposes across-the-board permission. Unforeseen risks in gene editing cannot be ruled out. All genetically modified products must go through the same safety and labeling processes regardless of method.

  1. Creating categories within genetically modified products in terms of transgenic modification and genome editing advances science but defies laws.
  2. Exempting from regulations the editing of endogenous genes is not desirable as this procedure might be risk-prone.
  3. Excepting microbes cultured in contained environments from the regulations of genome editing is premature.
  4. A government panel in Japan says transgenic modification and genome editing are not the same.

Answer

Option (2)

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