Reading Comprehension – Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings

Reading Comprehension

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings
Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be. In fact, they got their start trading in northern European markets, researchers suggest.

Combs carved from animal antlers, as well as comb manufacturing waste and raw antler material has turned up at three archaeological sites in Denmark, including a medieval marketplace in the city of Ribe. A team of researchers from Denmark and the U.K. hoped to identify the species of animal to which the antlers once belonged by analyzing collagen proteins in the samples and comparing them across the animal kingdom, Laura Geggel reports for LiveScience. Somewhat surprisingly, molecular analysis of the artifacts revealed that some combs and other material had been carved from reindeer antlers…. Given that reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) don’t live in Denmark, the researchers posit that it arrived on Viking ships from Norway. Antler craftsmanship, in the form of decorative combs, was part of Viking culture. Such combs served as symbols of good health, Geggel writes. The fact that the animals shed their antlers also made them easy to collect from the large herds that inhabited Norway.

Since the artifacts were found in marketplace areas at each site it’s more likely that the Norsemen came to trade rather than pillage. Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725. That predates the beginning of Viking raids on Great Britain by about 70 years. (Traditionally, the so-called “Viking Age” began with these raids in 793 and ended with the Norman conquest of Great Britain in 1066.) Archaeologists had suspected that the Vikings had experience with long maritime voyages [that] might have preceded their raiding days. Beyond Norway, these combs would have been a popular industry in Scandinavia as well. It’s possible that the antler combs represent a larger trade network, where the Norsemen supplied raw material to craftsmen in Denmark and elsewhere.

Questions

Q1) The primary purpose of the passage is:
A) to explain the presence of reindeer antler combs in Denmark.
B) to contradict the widely-accepted beginning date for the Viking Age in Britain, and propose an alternate one.
C) to challenge the popular perception of Vikings as raiders by using evidence that suggests their early trade relations with Europe.
D) to argue that besides being violent pillagers, Vikings were also skilled craftsmen and efficient traders.

Q2) The evidence – “Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725” – has been used in the passage to argue that:
A) the beginning date of the Viking Age should be changed from 793 to 725.
B) the Viking raids started as early as 725.
C) some of the antler artifacts found in Denmark and Great Britain could have come from Scandinavia.
D) the Vikings’ trade relations with Europe pre-dates the Viking raids.

Q3) All of the following hold true for Vikings EXCEPT
A) Vikings brought reindeer from Norway to Denmark for trade purposes.
B) Before becoming the raiders of northern Europe, Vikings had trade relations with European nations.
C) Antler combs, regarded by the Vikings as a symbol of good health, were part of the Viking culture.
D) Vikings, once upon a. time, had trade relations with Denmark and Scandinavia.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, Vikings have a reputation that they are plunderers and pillagers. The passage finds out the the other side of them, as traders.
Option C is the right answer.

Q2)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, this has been used to show that Vikings began their trade relations with Europeans 70 years before they started raiding them.
Option D is the correct answer.

Q3)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, Vikings brought reindeer antlers from Norway, not entire reindeers.
Option A is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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Reading Comprehension – Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings
5 (100%) 56 votes

Reading Comprehension – Typewriters are the epitome of a technology

Reading Comprehension

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Typewriters are the epitome of a technology
Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age. The ink comes off the ribbon, they weigh a ton, and second thoughts are a disaster. But they are also personal, portable and, above all, private. Type a document and lock it away and more or less the only way anyone else can get it is if you give it to them. That is why the Russians have decided to go back to typewriters in some government offices, and why in the US, some departments have never abandoned them. Yet it is not just their resistance to algorithms and secret surveillance that keeps typewriter production lines – well one, at least – in business (the last British one closed a year ago). Nor is it only the nostalgic appeal of the metal body and the stout well-defined keys that make them popular on eBay. A typewriter demands something particular: attentiveness. By the time the paper is loaded, the ribbon tightened, the carriage returned, the spacing and the margins set, there’s a big premium on hitting the right key. That means sorting out ideas, pulling together a kind of order and organising details before actually striking off. There can be no thinking on screen with a typewriter. Nor are there any easy distractions. No online shopping. No urgent emails. No Twitter. No need even for electricity – perfect for writing in a remote hideaway. The thinking process is accompanied by the encouraging clack of keys, and the ratchet of the carriage return. Ping!

Questions

Q1) Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?
A) It describes why people continue to use typewriters even in the digital age.
B) It argues that typewriters will continue to be used even though they are an obsolete technology.
C) It highlights the personal benefits of using typewriters.uture.
D) It shows that computers offer fewer options than typewriters.

Q2) According to the passage, some governments still use typewriters because:
A) they do not want to abandon old technologies that may be useful in the future.
B) they want to ensure that typewriter production lines remain in business.
C) they like the nostalgic appeal of typewriter.
D) they can control who reads the document.

Q3) The writer praises typewriters for all the following reasons EXCEPT
A) Unlike computers, they can only be used for typing.
B) You cannot revise what you have typed on a typewriter.
C) Typewriters are noisier than computers.
D) Typewriters are messier to use than computers.

Answers

Q1: Option (A)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (D)

Solutions

Q1)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
The passage states the reasons of why typewriters are used even in this digital age.
Option A is the correct answer.

Q2)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, typewriters are secure, they cannot be hacked which is crucial for the important documents of the government. Governments can control who reads the document.
Option D is the correct answer.

Q3)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, the author does not mention anywhere that typewriters are messy to use.
Option D is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam
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b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

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Reading Comprehension – Typewriters are the epitome of a technology
5 (100%) 52 votes

Reading Comprehension – The end of the age of the internal

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - The end of the age of the internal
The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers. Volvo has announced it will make no purely petrol-engined cars after 2019…and Tesla has just started selling its first electric car aimed squarely at the middle classes: the Tesla 3 sells for $35,000 in the US, and 400,000 people have put down a small, refundable deposit towards one. Several thousand have already taken delivery, and the company hopes to sell half a million more next year. This is a remarkable figure for a machine with a fairly short range and a very limited number of specialised charging stations.

Some of it reflects the remarkable abilities of Elon Musk, the company’s founder, as a salesman, engineer, and a man able to get the most out his factory workers and the governments he deals with…Mr Musk is selling a dream that the world wants to believe in.

This last may be the most important factor in the story. The private car is…a device of immense practical help and economic significance, but at the same time a theatre for myths of unattainable self-fulfilment. The one thing you will never see in a car advertisement is traffic, even though that is the element in which drivers spend their lives. Every single driver in a traffic jam is trying to escape from it, yet it is the inevitable consequence of mass car ownership.

The sleek and swift electric car is at one level merely the most contemporary fantasy of autonomy and power. But it might also disrupt our exterior landscapes nearly as much as the fossil fuel-engined car did in the last century. Electrical cars would of course pollute far less than fossil fuel-driven ones; instead of oil reserves, the rarest materials for batteries would make undeserving despots and their dynasties fantastically rich. Petrol stations would disappear. The air in cities would once more be breathable and their streets as quiet as those of Venice. This isn’t an unmixed good. Cars that were as silent as bicycles would still be as dangerous as they are now to anyone they hit without audible warning.

The dream goes further than that. The electric cars of the future will be so thoroughly equipped with sensors and reaction mechanisms that they will never hit anyone. Just as brakes don’t let you skid today, the steering wheel of tomorrow will swerve you away from danger before you have even noticed it…

This is where the fantasy of autonomy comes full circle. The logical outcome of cars which need no driver is that they will become cars which need no owner either. Instead, they will work as taxis do, summoned at will but only for the journeys we actually need. This the future towards which Uber…is working. The ultimate development of the private car will be to reinvent public transport. Traffic jams will be abolished only when the private car becomes a public utility. What then will happen to our fantasies of independence? We’ll all have to take to electrically powered bicycles.

Questions

Q1) Which of the following statements best reflects the author’s argument?
A) Hybrid and electric vehicles signal the end of the age of internal combustion engines.
B) Elon Musk is a remarkably gifted salesman.
C) The private car represents an unattainable myth of independence.
D) The future Uber car will be environmentally friendlier than even the Tesla.

Q2) The author points out all of the following about electric cars EXCEPT
A) Their reliance on rare materials for batteries will support despotic rule.
B) They will reduce air and noise pollution.
C) They will not decrease the number of traffic jams.
D) They will ultimately undermine rather than further driver autonomy.

Q3) According to the author, the main reason for Tesla’s remarkable sales is that
A) in the long run, the Tesla is more cost effective than fossil fuel-driven cars.
B) the US government has announced a tax subsidy for Tesla buyers.
C) the company is rapidly upscaling the number of specialised charging stations for customer convenience.
D) people believe in the autonomy represented by private cars.

Q4) The author comes to the conclusion that
A) car drivers will no longer own cars but will have to use public transport.
B) cars will be controlled by technology that is more efficient than car drivers.
C) car drivers dream of autonomy but the future may be public transport.
D) electrically powered bicycles are the only way to achieve autonomy in transportation

Q5) In paragraphs 5 and 6, the author provides the example of Uber to argue that
A) in the future, electric cars will be equipped with mechanisms that prevent collisions.
B) in the future, traffic jams will not exist.
C) in the future, the private car will be transformed into a form of public transport.
D) in the future, Uber rides will outstrip Tesla sales.

Q6) In paragraph 6, the author mentions electrically powered bicycles to argue that
A) if Elon Musk were a true visionary, he would invest funds in developing electric bicycles.
B) our fantasies of autonomy might unexpectedly require us to consider electric bicycles.
C) in terms of environmental friendliness and safety, electric bicycles rather than electric cars are the future.
D) electric buses are the best form of public transport.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (D)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (C)
Q6: Option (B)

Solutions

Q1)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, as privatization of cars will increase, traffic will also increase that every driver tries to escape from. Traffic jams can only be avoided when private cars become a public utility. Traffic jams refrain us from independence and independence will only be a myth till private cars are used by everyone.
Option C is the right answer.

Q2
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, from the last paragraph we can see that with future cars, the fantasy of autonomy will come a full circle. They will work as taxis, that can be summoned anytime.
So, instead of undermining driver autonomy they will further it.
Option D is the right answer.

Q3
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, the world dreams of having full autonomy and Tesla is providing that which is the reason for Tesla’s remarkable sales.
Option D is the right answer.

Q4
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension ,the author says that as the number of private cars increase, there will be more traffic jam and the dream of independence will only be a myth. The myth can only be achieved if private cars are become a public utility.
Option C is the right answer.

Q5)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, in the last paragraph, the author says through the sentence “The logical outcome of cars which need no driver is that they will need no owner either” which means that they will become public transport.
Option (C)

Q6)
As per the last paragraph from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, “Traffic jams will be abolished only when the car becomes a public utility. What will happen to our fantasies of independence? We will all have to take to electrically powered bicycles”. Since independence and autonomy are synonymous, the author suggests that we will need to consider bicycles if we want autonomy.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – The end of the age of the internal
5 (100%) 53 votes

Reading Comprehension – During the frigid season….

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - During the frigid season....
During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm. The temperature difference between the blanket and the air outside is so palpable that we often have trouble leaving our warm refuge. Many plants and animals similarly hunker down, relying on snow cover for safety from winter’s harsh conditions. The small area between the snowpack and the ground, called the subnivium…might be the most important ecosystem that you have never heard of.

The subnivium is so well-insulated and stable that its temperature holds steady at around 32 degree Fahrenheit (0 degree Celsius). Although that might still sound cold, a constant temperature of 32 degree Fahrenheit can often be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the air temperature during the peak of winter. Because of this large temperature difference, a wide variety of species…depend on the subnivium for winter protection.

For many organisms living in temperate and Arctic regions, the difference between being under the snow or outside it is a matter of life and death. Consequently, disruptions to the subnivium brought about by climate change will affect everything from population dynamics to nutrient cycling through the ecosystem.

The formation and stability of the subnivium requires more than a few flurries. Winter ecologists have suggested that eight inches of snow is necessary to develop a stable layer of insulation. Depth is not the only factor, however. More accurately, the stability of the subnivium depends on the interaction between snow depth and snow density. Imagine being under a stack of blankets that are all flattened and pressed together. When compressed, the blankets essentially form one compacted layer. In contrast, when they are lightly placed on top of one another, their insulative capacity increases because the air pockets between them trap heat. Greater depths of low-density snow are therefore better at insulating the ground.

Both depth and density of snow are sensitive to temperature. Scientists are now beginning to explore how climate change will affect the subnivium, as well as the species that depend on it. At first glance, warmer winters seem beneficial for species that have difficulty surviving subzero temperatures; however, as with most ecological phenomena, the consequences are not so straightforward. Research has shown that the snow season (the period when snow is more likely than rain) has become shorter since 1970. When rain falls on snow, it increases the density of the snow and reduces its insulative capacity. Therefore, even though winters are expected to become warmer overall from future climate change, the subnivium will tend to become colder and more variable with less protection from the above-ground temperatures.

The effects of a colder subnivium are complex…For example, shrubs such as crowberry and alpine azalea that grow along the forest floor tend to block the wind and so retain higher depths of snow around them. This captured snow helps to keep soils insulated and in turn increases plant decomposition and nutrient release. In field experiments, researchers removed a portion of the snow cover to investigate the importance of the subnivium’s insulation. They found that soil frost in the snow-free area resulted in damage to plant roots and sometimes even the death of the plant.

Questions

Q1) The purpose of this passage is to
A) introduce readers to a relatively unknown ecosystem: the subnivium
B) explain how the subnivium works to provide shelter and food to several species.
C) outline the effects of climate change on the subnivium.
D) draw an analogy between the effect of blankets on humans and of snow cover on species living in the subnivium.

Q2) All of the following statements are true EXCEPT
A) Snow depth and snow density both influence the stability of the subnivium.
B) Climate change has some positive effects on the subnivium.
C) The subnivium maintains a steady temperature that can be 30 to 40 degrees warmer than the winter air temperature.
D) Researchers have established the adverse effects of dwindling snow cover on the subnivium.

Q3) Based on this extract, the author would support which one of the following actions?
A) The use of snow machines in winter to ensure snow cover of at least eight inches.
B) Government action to curb climate change.
C) Adding nutrients to the soil in winter.
D) Planting more shrubs in areas of short snow season

Q4) In paragraph 6, the author provides the examples of crowberry and alpine azalea to demonstrate that
A) Despite frigid temperatures, several species survive in temperate and Arctic regions.
B) Due to frigid temperatures in the temperate and Arctic regions., plant species that survive tend to be shrubs rather than trees.
C) The crowberry and alpine azalea are abundant in temperate and Arctic regions.
D) The stability of the subnivium depends on several interrelated factors, including shrubs on the forest floor.

Q5) Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
A) In an ecosystem, altering any one element has a ripple effect on all others.
B) Climate change affects temperate and Artie regions more than equatorial or arid ones.
C) A compact layer of wool is warmer than a similarly compact layer of goose down.
D) The loss of the subnivium, while tragic, will affect only temperate and Artie regions.

Q6) In paragraph 1, the author uses blankets as a device to
A) evoke the bitter cold of winter in the minds of readers.
B) explain how blankets work to keep us warm.
C) draw an analogy between blankets and the snowpack.
D) alert readers to the fatal effects of excessive exposure to the cold.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (B)
Q4: Option (D)
Q5: Option (A)
Q6: Option (C)

Solutions

Q1)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
After reading the passage, it can be concluded that the purpose of the passage is to outline the effects of climate change on the subnivium.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q2)
From CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, as climate change occurs, subnivium will become colder and hence provide less protection from above – ground temperatures (Refer 2nd last paragraph). Climate change will not have a positive effect on subnivium.
Option (B) is the correct answer.

Q3)
From CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, author will favor if govt takes action to curb climate change as it is affecting subnivium negatively which sometimes leads to the death of plants and nutrient release.
Option (B) is the right answer.

Q4)
From CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, the shrubs block the wind and retain higher depths of snow around them which in turn, keeps the soil insulated. (Refer last paragraph)
So, stability of subnivium depends on several interdependent factors.
Option D is the right answer.

Q5)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
It can be seen from the paragraph that there are a lot of interrelated factors that if altered can cause impact on all others. Like climate change creates a very substantial impact on the subnivium.
Option (A) is the right answer.

Q6)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
To demonstrate why low-density snow is better at insulating the ground.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – During the frigid season….
5 (100%) 60 votes

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Creativity is at once our most precious

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Creativity is at once our most precious
Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data, perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In fact creativity is a social process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.

Cities are the true fonts of creativity… With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.

As for what staunches creativity, that’s easy, if ironic. It’s the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are regimented, standardized and stultifying.

The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2 percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.

I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that’s our default state as people. But some cities had more than their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them “squelchers.”

Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide – our rising inequality – that plagues us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most creative cities – are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies, innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators – those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I term “the other 66 percent,” who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated, ignored or wasted.

Creativity itself is not in danger. It’s flourishing is all around us – in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and every one of us.

Questions

Q1) In the author’s view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they
A) contain spaces that enable people to meet and share new ideas.
B) expose people to different and novel ideas, because they are home to varied groups of people.
C) provide the financial and institutional networks that enable ideas to become reality.
D) provide access to cultural activities that promote new and creative ways of thinking.

Q2) The author uses ‘ironic’ in the third paragraph to point out that
A) people need social contact rather than isolation to nurture their creativity
B) institutions created to promote creativity eventually stifle it
C) the larger the creative population in a city, the more likely it is to be stifled
D) large bureaucracies and institutions are the inevitable outcome of successful cities

Q3) The central idea of this passage is that
A) social interaction is necessary to nurture creativity
B) creativity and ideas are gradually declining in all societies
C) the creativity divide is widening in societies in line with socio-economic trends
D) more people should work in jobs that engage their creative faculties

Q4) Jane Jacobs believed that cities that are more creative
A) have to struggle to retain their creativity
B) have to ‘squelch’ unproductive people and promote creative ones
C) have leaders and institutions that do not block creativity
D) typically do not start off as creative hubs

Q5) The 1968 study is used here to show that
A) as they get older, children usually learn to be more creative
B) schooling today does not encourage creative thinking in children
C) the more children learn, the less creative they become
D) technology today prevents children from being creative.

Q6) The author’s conclusions about the most ‘creative cities’ in the US (paragraph 6) are based on his assumption that
A) people who work with their hands are not doing creative work.
B) more than half the population works in non-creative jobs.
C) only artists, musicians., writers., and so on should be valued in a society.
D) most cities ignore or waste the creativity of low-wage workers

Answers

Q1: Option (D)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (A)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (B)
Q6: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
From paragraph 2, we can see that cities provide public spaces where people can meet and share new ideas and have institutions for finance, organization and trade. Cultural activities are not mentioned.
Option D is the correct answer.

Q2)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, although institutions are built to foster creativity, on the contrary they stifle creativity as schools as organizations are regimented, standardized and stultifying which is ironic.
Option B is the correct answer.

Q3)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, most of us believe that creativity is only restricted to some people but in the 1st paragraph author states that creativity is a social process.
Option (A) is the right answer.

Q4)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
In paragraph 5, Jane Jacobs says that all cities have people full of creativity. But some cities had less because of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity.
As per her argument, cities that are more creative have leaders and institutions that do not block creativity.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q5)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, the study of 1968 shows that as people grew older their creativity vanished which is a result of schooling.
Option (B) is the right answer.

Q6)
As per the above passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, we can see that, low-wage and rotten jobs refer to jobs that do not involve any thinking and need to be done with hands which means no creativity is used.
Option (A) is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Creativity is at once our most precious
5 (100%) 60 votes

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Do sports mega events
Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International
Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

Questions

Q1) The central point in the first paragraph is that the economic benefits of the Olympic Games
A) are shared equally among the three organising committees
B) accrue mostly through revenue from advertisements and ticket sales
C) accrue to host cities, if at all, only in the long term
D) are usually eroded by expenditure incurred by the host city

Q2) Sports facilities built for the Olympics are not fully utilised after the Games are over because
A) their scale and the costs of operating them are large
B) their location away from the city centre usually limits easy access.
C) the authorities do not adapt them to local conditions.
D) they become outdated having being built with little planning and under time pressure

Q3) The author feels that the Games place a burden on the host city for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A) they divert scarce urban land from more productive uses
B) they involve the demolition of residential structures to accommodate sports facilities and infrastructure
C) the finances used to fund the Games could be better used for other purposes.
D) the influx of visitors during the Games places a huge strain on the urban infrastructure.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (A)
Q3: Option (D)

Solutions

Q1
As we can get from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, a lion’s amount of revenue goes to the three committees, only advertisements generate some revenue for the host city which are dubious. So, if at all there is a benefit, it will only be in the long term.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q2
From paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that maintaining these huge stadiums takes up a lot of investment. Stadium is Beijing (Bird’s Nest) is empty and Olympic stadium in Sydney costs $30 mn a year to operate.
Option (A) is the correct answer.

Q3
From paragraphs 3 and 4 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that the land is scarce, citizens have to be relocated and the already vanishing fiscal resources could be put to better use.
Option D is not mentioned as a problem. It is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

​​

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b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

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Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events
5 (100%) 52 votes

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Scientists have long recognized
Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years. That divergence between populations within a species was enforced, according to Ernst Mayr, the great evolutionary biologist of the 1940s, when a population was separated from the rest of the species by a mountain range or a desert, preventing breeding across the divide over geologic scales of time. Without the separation, gene flow was relentless. But as the separation persisted, the isolated population grew apart and speciation occurred.

In the mid-1960s, the biologist Paul Ehrlich – author of The Population Bomb (1968) – and his Stanford University colleague Peter Raven challenged Mayr’s ideas about speciation. They had studied checkerspot butterflies living in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in California, and it soon became clear that they were not examining a single population. Through years of capturing, marking and then recapturing the butterflies, they were able to prove that within the population, spread over just 50 acres of suitable checkerspot habitat, there were three groups that rarely interacted despite their very close proximity.

Among other ideas, Ehrlich and Raven argued in a now classic paper from 1969 that gene flow was not as predictable and ubiquitous as Mayr and his cohort maintained, and thus evolutionary divergence between neighbouring groups in a population was probably common. They also asserted that isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence than natural selection (when factors such as mate choice, weather, disease or predation cause better-adapted individuals to survive and pass on their successful genetic traits). For example, Ehrlich and Raven suggested that, without the force of natural selection, an isolated population would remain unchanged and that, in other scenarios, natural selection could be strong enough to overpower gene flow…

Questions

Q1) Which of the following best sums up Ehrlich and Raven’s argument in their classic 1969 paper?
A) Ernst Mayr was wrong in identifying physical separation as the cause of species diversity B) Checkerspot butterflies in the 50-acre Jasper Ridge Preserve formed three groups that rarely interacted with each other
C) While a factor, isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection
D) Gene flow is less common and more erratic than Mayr and his colleagues claimed.

Q2) All of the following statements are true according to the passage EXCEPT
A) Gene flow contributes to evolutionary divergence.
B) The Population Bomb questioned dominant ideas about species diversity
C) Evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly over time.
D) Checkerspot butterflies are known to exhibit speciation while living in close proximity

Q3) The author discusses Mayr, Ehrlich and Raven to demonstrate that
A) evolution is a sensitive and controversial topic
B) Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about evolutionary divergence are widely accepted by scientists.
C) the causes of speciation are debated by scientists
D) checkerspot butterflies offer the best example of Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about speciation

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (C)

Solutions

Q1
Acc to Ernst Mayr in paragraph 1 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, there is no gene flow when species are separated from other species. In paragraph 2, Ehrlich and Raven found out that in 50 acres of area there were 3 species of butterflies that never interacted with each other. This led them put forth the argument in 1969 paper that, while a factor, Isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Q2
In paragraph 3 CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, it is said that “isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence. So, gene flow does contribute to evolutionary divergence.
In the first line of paragraph 1, we can see that “evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly, over millions of years”.
In the second paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that even though three species of Checkerspot butterflies were living within 50 acres, they did not interact with each other which led to speciation.
Option (B) is the correct answer.

Q3
The scientists are in debate with each other over the fact the fact that speciation occurs when species are isolated from each other. Mayr concluded in the first paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage that when populations are isolated, speciation occurs. But Ehrlich and Raven observe that even though Checkerspot butterflies lived in close proximity, they did not interact with each other. This leads to a debate between the scientists.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized
5 (100%) 54 votes

Reading Comprehension – Passage – This year alone, more than 8,600 stores

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - This year alone, more than 8,600 stores
This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court. Already there have been 5,300 retail closings this year… Sears Holdings—which owns Kmart—said in March that there’s “substantial doubt” it can stay in business altogether, and will close 300 stores this year. So far this year, nine national retail chains have filed for bankruptcy.

Local jobs are a major casualty of what analysts are calling, with only a hint of hyperbole, the retail apocalypse. Since 2002, department stores have lost 448,000 jobs, a 25% decline, while the number of store closures this year is on pace to surpass the worst depths of the Great Recession. The growth of online retailers, meanwhile, has failed to offset those losses, with the ecommerce sector adding just 178,000 jobs over the past 15 years. Some of those jobs can be found in the massive distribution centers Amazon has opened across the country, often not too far from malls the company helped shutter.

But those are workplaces, not gathering places. The mall is both. And in the 61 years since the first enclosed one opened in suburban Minneapolis, the shopping mall has been where a huge swath of middle-class America went for far more than shopping. It was the home of first jobs and blind dates, the place for family photos and ear piercings, where goths and grandmothers could somehow walk through the same doors and find something they all liked. Sure, the food was lousy for you and the oceans of parking lots encouraged car-heavy development, something now scorned by contemporary planners. But for better or worse, the mall has been America’s public square for the last 60 years.

So what happens when it disappears?

Think of your mall. Or think of the one you went to as a kid. Think of the perfume clouds in the department stores. The fountains splashing below the skylights. The cinnamon wafting from the food court. As far back as ancient Greece, societies have congregated around a central marketplace. In medieval Europe, they were outside cathedrals. For half of the 20th century and almost 20 years into the new one, much of America has found their agora on the terrazzo between Orange Julius and Sbarro, Waldenbooks and the Gap, Sunglass Hut and Hot Topic.

That mall was an ecosystem unto itself, a combination of community and commercialism peddling everything you needed and everything you didn’t: Magic Eye posters, wind catchers. Air Jordans. …

A growing number of Americans, however, don’t see the need to go to any Macy’s at all. Our digital lives are frictionless and ruthlessly efficient, with retail and romance available at a
click. Malls were designed for leisure, abundance, ambling. You parked and planned to spend some time. Today, much of that time has been given over to busier lives and second jobs and apps that let you swipe right instead of haunt the food court. ‘ Malls, says Harvard business professor Leonard Schlesinger, “were built for patterns of social interaction that increasingly don’t exist.”

Questions

Q1) The central idea of this passage is that:
A) the closure of mails has affected the economic and social life of middle-class America
B) the advantages of malls outweigh their disadvantages.
C) malls used to perform a social function that has been lost
D) malls are closing down because people have found alternate ways to shop.

Q2) Why does the author say in paragraph 2, ‘the massive distribution centers Amazon has opened across the country, often not too far from malls the company helped shutter’?
A) To highlight the irony of the situation
B) To indicate that mails and distribution centres are located in the same area
C) To show that Amazon is helping certain brands go online
D) To indicate that the shopping habits of the American middle class have changed.

Q3) In paragraph 1, the phrase “real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court” suggests that they
A) took brand-name anchor outlets to court
B) no longer pursue brand-name anchor outlets
C) collaborated with one another to get brand-name anchor outlets
D) were eager to get brand-name anchor outlets to set up shop m their mall

Q4) The author calls the mall an ecosystem unto itself because
A) people of all ages and from all walks of life went there
B) people could shop as well as eat in one place
C) it was a commercial space as well as a gathering place.
D) it sold things that were needed as well as those that were not.

Q5) Why does the author say that the mall has been America’s public square?
A) Malls did not bar anybody from entering the space
B) Malls were a great place to shop for a huge section of the middle class
C) Malls were a hangout place where families grew close to each other
D) Malls were a great place for everyone to gather and interact.

Q6) The author describes ‘Perfume clouds in the department stores’ in order to
A) evoke memories by painting a. picture of mails
B) describe the smells and sights of mails
C) emphasise that all brands were available under one roof.
D) show that malls smelt good because of the various stores and food court.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (A)
Q3: Option (B)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (D)
Q6: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1
Although the passage mentions the economic setback due to closing of malls, but it also says that some of these jobs can be found in the centres Amazon has opened. The main focus of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage is the social function that malls used to perform which is losing itself.
Option C is the correct answer.

Q2
Through this statement of paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, author clearly states the irony of the situation. While the malls are shutting down, Amazon is opening its distribution centres near to the malls.
Option A is the correct answer.

Q3
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can infer that now that people prefer online shopping over going to malls, real estate developers have stopped fighting over brand – name anchor outlets.
Option (B) is the right answer.

Q4
From paragraph 3 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that along with being a commercial place, malls were also a gathering place. People from all sections of the society could come and enjoy themselves.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q5
Malls were not just a place for shopping, but they were also a place for people to just gather and interact as can be seen from paragraph 3 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage.

Q6
In paragraph 5 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, the author is reminding people of the time when they were a kid and used to go to the mall by mentioning the smells.
Option (A) is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – This year alone, more than 8,600 stores
5 (100%) 53 votes

Reading Comprehension – Passage – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension – Passage  – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of
I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention. Near a 13th-century cathedral in this Swiss city on the shores of a lovely lake, I found what I was looking for: a Gutenberg printing press. “This was the Internet of its day — at least as influential as the iPhone,” said Gabriel de Montmollin, the director of the Museum of the Reformation, toying with the replica of Johann Gutenberg’s great invention. [Before the invention of the printing press] it used to take four monks…up to a year to produce a single book. With the advance in movable type in 15th-century Europe, one press could crank out 3,000 pages a day. Before long, average people could travel to places that used to be unknown to them — with maps! Medical information passed more freely and quickly, diminishing the sway of quacks…The printing press offered the prospect that tyrants would never be able to kill a book or suppress an idea. Gutenberg’s brainchild broke the monopoly that clerics had on scripture. And later, stirred by pamphlets from a version of that same press, the American colonies rose up against a king and gave birth to a nation.

So, a question in the summer of this 10th anniversary of the iPhone: has the device that is perhaps the most revolutionary of all time given us a single magnificent idea? Nearly every advancement of the written word through new technology has also advanced humankind. Sure, you can say the iPhone changed everything. By putting the world’s recorded knowledge in the palm of a hand, it revolutionized work, dining, travel and socializing. It made us more narcissistic — here’s more of me doing cool stuff! — and it unleashed an army of awful trolls. We no longer have the patience to sit through a baseball game without that reach to the pocket. And one more casualty of Apple selling more than a billion phones in a decade’s time: daydreaming has become a lost art.

For all of that, I’m still waiting to see if the iPhone can do what the printing press did for religion and democracy…the Geneva museum makes a strong case that the printing press opened more minds than anything else…it’s hard to imagine the French or American revolutions without those enlightened voices in print…

Not long after Steve Jobs introduced his iPhone, he said the bound book was probably headed for history’s attic. Not so fast. After a period of rapid growth in e-books, something closer to the medium for Chaucer’s volumes has made a great comeback.

The hope of the iPhone, and the Internet in general, was that it would free people in closed societies. But the failure of the Arab Spring, and the continued suppression of ideas in North Korea, China and Iran, has not borne that out… The iPhone is still young. It has certainly been “one of the most important, world-changing and successful products in history, “ as Apple CEO. Tim Cook said. But I’m not sure if the world changed for the better with the iPhone — as it did with the printing press — or merely, changed.

Questions

Q1) The printing press has been likened to the Internet for which one of the following reasons?
A) It enabled rapid access to new information and the sharing of new ideas
B) It represented new and revolutionary technology compared to the past
C) It encouraged reading among people by giving them access to thousands of books
D) It gave people access to pamphlets and literature in several languages

Q2) According to the passage, the invention of the printing press did all of the following EXCEPT
A) Promoted the spread of enlightened political views across countries
B) Gave people direct access to authentic medical information and religious texts
C) shortened the time taken to produce books and pamphlets.
D) enabled people to perform various tasks simultaneously.

Q3) Steve Jobs predicted which one’of the following with the introduction of the iPhone?
A) People would switch from reading on the Internet to reading on their iPhones.
B) People would lose interest in historical and traditional classics.
C) Reading printed books would become a thing of the past.
D) The production of e-books would eventually fall.

Q4) “I’m still waiting to see if the iPhone can do what the printing press did for religion and democracy.” The author uses which one of the following to indicate his uncertainty?
A) The rise of religious groups in many parts of the world.
B) The expansion in trolling and narcissism among users of the Internet
C) The continued suppression of free speech in closed societies
D) The decline in reading habits among those who use the device

Q5) The author attributes the French and American revolutions to the invention of the printing press because
A) maps enabled large numbers of Europeans to travel and settle in the American continent.
B) the rapid spread of information exposed people to new ideas on freedom and democracy
C) it encouraged religious freedom among the people by destroying the monopoly of religious leaders on the scriptures.
D) it made available revolutionary strategies and opinions to the people.

Q6) The main conclusion of the passage is that the new technology has
A) some advantages, but these are outweighed by its disadvantages.
B) so far not proved as successful as the printing press in opening people’s minds
C) been disappointing because it has changed society too rapidly
D) been more wasteful than the printing press because people spend more time daydreaming or surfing.

Answers

Q1: Option (A)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (C)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (B)
Q6: Option (B)

Solutions

Q1
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that, earlier, printing books took a lot of time. One book took a year and 4 monks to be produced. After the advent of Gutenberg press, not only books became easy to produce but also pamphlets, newspapers etc. came into circulation which gave birth to ideas and allowed their sharing which led to revolutions. Option (A) is the clear answer.

Q2
From paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that printing press shortened the time to produce books (one press could crank out 3000 pages per day), medical information passed freely and quickly and political views spread across countries which led to revolutions.

Q3
In paragraph 5 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, Steve Jobs says that, “Bound book was probably headed for history’s attic”

Option C is the correct answer

Q4
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that printing press revolutionized the society, information was available to everyone and ideas could flow freely. Have a look at paragraph 4, as per the author, iPhone has failed in doing so till now, there is continued suppression in societies like China, North Korea and Iran. He is waiting for something like this to happen.

Option (C) is the correct answer.

Q5
In paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see in the last lines that Gutenberg press produced pamphlets which stirred by which American colonies rose up against a king and gave birth to a nation. Rapid information exposed to people to information and ideas.

Option B is the correct answer.

Q6
In the last line of the paragraph of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, author says that, “I’m not sure if the world changed for the better with the iPhone – as it did with the Printing Press – or merely changed”.

So, the conclusion of the passage is that the iPhone (new technology) is not that successful in opening people’s minds as printing press.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
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Reading Comprehension – Passage – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of
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Reading Comprehension – Passage – Understanding where you are in the world

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.


Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings. Where humans are unique, though, with the possible exception of honeybees, is that we try to communicate this understanding the world with others. We have along history of doing this by drawing maps – the earliest version yet discovered were scrawled on cave walls 14,000 years ago. Human cultures have been drawing them on stone tablets, papyrus, paper and now computer screens ever since.

Given such a long history of human map-making, it perhaps surprising that is only within the last few hundred years that north has been consistently considered to be at the top. In fact, for much of human history, north almost never appeared at the top, according to Jerry Brotton, a map historian… “North was rarely put at the top for the simple fact that north is where darkness comes from,” he says. “West is also very unlikely o be put at the top because west is where the sun disappears.”

Confusingly, early Chinese maps seem to buck this trend. But, Brotton, says, even though they did have compasses at the time, that isn’t the reason that they placed north at the top. Early Chinese compasses were actually oriented to point south, which was considered to be more desirable than deepest darkest north. But in Chinese maps, the emperor, who lived in the north of the country was always put at the top of the map, with everyone else, his loyal subjects, looking up towards him. “In Chinese culture the Emperor looks south because it’s where the winds come from, it’s a good direction. North is not very good but you are in a position of the subjection to the emperor, so you look up to him,” says Brotton.

Given that each culture has a very different idea of who, or what, they should look upto it’s perhaps not surprising that there is very little consistency in which way early maps pointed. In ancient Egyptian times the top of the world was east, the position of sunrise. Early Islamic maps favoured south at the top because most of the early Muslim cultures were north of Mecca, so they imagined looking up (south) towards it Christian maps from the same era (called Mappa Mundi) put east at the top, towards the Garden of Eden and with Jerusalem in the centre.

So when did everyone get together and decide that north was the top? It’s tempting to put it down to European explorers like Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Megellan who were navigating by the North Star. But Brotton argues that these early explorers didn’t think of the world like that at all. “When Columbus describes the world it is in accordance with east being at the top,” he says “Columbus says he is going towards paradise, so his mentality is from a medieval mappa mundi.” We’ve got to remember, adds Brotton, that at the time, “no one knows what they are doing and where they are going.”

Questions

Q1) Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?
A) It questions on explanation about how maps are designed.
B) It corrects a misconception about the way maps are designed.
C) It critiques a methodology used to create maps
D) It explores some myths about maps

Q2) Early maps did NOT put north at the top for all the following reasons EXCEPT
A) North was the source of darkness
B) South was favoured by some emperors.
C) East and south were more important for religious reasons for some civilisations
D) East was considered by some civilisations to be a more positive direction

Q3) According to the passage, early Chinese maps placed north at the top because
A) the Chinese invented the compass and were aware of magnetic north
B) they wanted to show respect to the emperor.
C) the Chinese emperor appreciated the winds from the south.
D) north was considered the most desirable direction.

Q4) It can be inferred from the passage that European explorers like Columbus and Megellan
A) set the precedent for north-up maps.
B) navigated by the compass.
C) used an eastward orientation for religious reasons.
D) navigated with the help of early maps

Q5) Which one of the following about the northern orientation of modern maps is asserted in the passage?
A) The biggest contributory factor was the understanding of magnetic north
B) The biggest contributory factor was the role of European explorers
C) The biggest contributory factor was the influence of Christian maps
D) The biggest contributory factor is not stated in the passage

Q6) The role of natural phenomena in influencing map-making conventions is seen most clearly in
A) early Egyptian maps
B) early Islamic maps
C) early Chinese maps
D) early Christian maps

Answers

Q1: Option (B)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (B)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (D)
Q6: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1)
After going through the above passage of Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017 carefully, with particular focus on the first sentence of the second paragraph of the Reading Comprehension “Given such a long period of …. considered to be on the top” and the second and third sentences of the last paragraph “It’s tempting to.. at all” demonstrate that B is the correct choice.

Q2)
Option A: In paragraph 2 of the Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017, Jerry Brotton says, “North was rarely put at the top for the simple fact that north is where darkness comes from”. So, Option 1 can’t be the correct answer.
Option C: In paragraph 4 we can see that Early Islamic maps favored south at the top because Early Muslim cultures were North of Mecca, so they looked up (South) towards it (A religious reason)
Also, Cristians put east at the top towards Garden of Eden and Jerusalem in the center.
Option C cannot be the answer.
Option D: In the last paragraph of the above Reading Comprehension of CAT 2017, we can see that Columbus says, “I am going to paradise”, by which he means East direction
So, option D cannot be the answer.
Option B: In the entire paragraph, we can’t see anywhere that North has been favored by any emperor.

Q3
Move to paragraph 3 of the above Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017 to answer this question
Option A: In the 1st two lines, Brotton says that even though Chinese did have compasses but they actually pointed towards South. So, this is the wrong option.
Option B: Wind comes from South and emperor prefers to look in that direction. Those who are in subjection to the emperor, face towards North to look up to him.
Option (B) is the right answer, maps pointed in north to show respect to the emperor.
Option C: Yes, the emperor appreciated winds from the south but this does not tell us why Chinese maps were pointed towards North.
Option D: Instead, South was a favored direction as that is where the winds came from.
This is the wrong answer

Q4)
In the last paragraph of this CAT 2017 Reading Comprehension, we can see that Columbus says he is going towards paradise, and this comes from Mappa Mundi (Cristian Map) – which is pointed towards East due to Mecca (a religious reason). So, explorers like Cristopher and Megellan use an Eastward direction due to religious reasons.

Q5)
The passage does not mention anywhere why Modern Maps put North at the top. The only thing that is stated is, that unlike modern period, history shows us that North was rarely put at the top.
Option (D) is the correct answer as it has been nowhere mentioned in the passage why North is put at the top in modern times.

Q6)
In paragraph 4 of this CAT 2017 Reading Comprehension, we can see that Egyptians put East at the top because of the position of sunrise (a natural phenomenon). Rest all are pointed towards North, South or East because of religious reasons (Christians and Muslims) or to show respect to the emperor (Chinese)
Option A is the correct answer

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Understanding where you are in the world
5 (100%) 61 votes