Reading Comprehension – Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings

Reading Comprehension

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings
Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be. In fact, they got their start trading in northern European markets, researchers suggest.

Combs carved from animal antlers, as well as comb manufacturing waste and raw antler material has turned up at three archaeological sites in Denmark, including a medieval marketplace in the city of Ribe. A team of researchers from Denmark and the U.K. hoped to identify the species of animal to which the antlers once belonged by analyzing collagen proteins in the samples and comparing them across the animal kingdom, Laura Geggel reports for LiveScience. Somewhat surprisingly, molecular analysis of the artifacts revealed that some combs and other material had been carved from reindeer antlers…. Given that reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) don’t live in Denmark, the researchers posit that it arrived on Viking ships from Norway. Antler craftsmanship, in the form of decorative combs, was part of Viking culture. Such combs served as symbols of good health, Geggel writes. The fact that the animals shed their antlers also made them easy to collect from the large herds that inhabited Norway.

Since the artifacts were found in marketplace areas at each site it’s more likely that the Norsemen came to trade rather than pillage. Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725. That predates the beginning of Viking raids on Great Britain by about 70 years. (Traditionally, the so-called “Viking Age” began with these raids in 793 and ended with the Norman conquest of Great Britain in 1066.) Archaeologists had suspected that the Vikings had experience with long maritime voyages [that] might have preceded their raiding days. Beyond Norway, these combs would have been a popular industry in Scandinavia as well. It’s possible that the antler combs represent a larger trade network, where the Norsemen supplied raw material to craftsmen in Denmark and elsewhere.

Questions

Q1) The primary purpose of the passage is:
A) to explain the presence of reindeer antler combs in Denmark.
B) to contradict the widely-accepted beginning date for the Viking Age in Britain, and propose an alternate one.
C) to challenge the popular perception of Vikings as raiders by using evidence that suggests their early trade relations with Europe.
D) to argue that besides being violent pillagers, Vikings were also skilled craftsmen and efficient traders.

Q2) The evidence – “Most of the artifacts also date to the 780s, but some are as old as 725” – has been used in the passage to argue that:
A) the beginning date of the Viking Age should be changed from 793 to 725.
B) the Viking raids started as early as 725.
C) some of the antler artifacts found in Denmark and Great Britain could have come from Scandinavia.
D) the Vikings’ trade relations with Europe pre-dates the Viking raids.

Q3) All of the following hold true for Vikings EXCEPT
A) Vikings brought reindeer from Norway to Denmark for trade purposes.
B) Before becoming the raiders of northern Europe, Vikings had trade relations with European nations.
C) Antler combs, regarded by the Vikings as a symbol of good health, were part of the Viking culture.
D) Vikings, once upon a. time, had trade relations with Denmark and Scandinavia.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, Vikings have a reputation that they are plunderers and pillagers. The passage finds out the the other side of them, as traders.
Option C is the right answer.

Q2)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, this has been used to show that Vikings began their trade relations with Europeans 70 years before they started raiding them.
Option D is the correct answer.

Q3)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, Vikings brought reindeer antlers from Norway, not entire reindeers.
Option A is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
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Reading Comprehension – Despite their fierce reputation, Vikings
5 (100%) 56 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Typewriters are the epitome of a technology

Reading Comprehension

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Afternoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Typewriters are the epitome of a technology
Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age. The ink comes off the ribbon, they weigh a ton, and second thoughts are a disaster. But they are also personal, portable and, above all, private. Type a document and lock it away and more or less the only way anyone else can get it is if you give it to them. That is why the Russians have decided to go back to typewriters in some government offices, and why in the US, some departments have never abandoned them. Yet it is not just their resistance to algorithms and secret surveillance that keeps typewriter production lines – well one, at least – in business (the last British one closed a year ago). Nor is it only the nostalgic appeal of the metal body and the stout well-defined keys that make them popular on eBay. A typewriter demands something particular: attentiveness. By the time the paper is loaded, the ribbon tightened, the carriage returned, the spacing and the margins set, there’s a big premium on hitting the right key. That means sorting out ideas, pulling together a kind of order and organising details before actually striking off. There can be no thinking on screen with a typewriter. Nor are there any easy distractions. No online shopping. No urgent emails. No Twitter. No need even for electricity – perfect for writing in a remote hideaway. The thinking process is accompanied by the encouraging clack of keys, and the ratchet of the carriage return. Ping!

Questions

Q1) Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?
A) It describes why people continue to use typewriters even in the digital age.
B) It argues that typewriters will continue to be used even though they are an obsolete technology.
C) It highlights the personal benefits of using typewriters.uture.
D) It shows that computers offer fewer options than typewriters.

Q2) According to the passage, some governments still use typewriters because:
A) they do not want to abandon old technologies that may be useful in the future.
B) they want to ensure that typewriter production lines remain in business.
C) they like the nostalgic appeal of typewriter.
D) they can control who reads the document.

Q3) The writer praises typewriters for all the following reasons EXCEPT
A) Unlike computers, they can only be used for typing.
B) You cannot revise what you have typed on a typewriter.
C) Typewriters are noisier than computers.
D) Typewriters are messier to use than computers.

Answers

Q1: Option (A)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (D)

Solutions

Q1)
CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension
The passage states the reasons of why typewriters are used even in this digital age.
Option A is the correct answer.

Q2)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, typewriters are secure, they cannot be hacked which is crucial for the important documents of the government. Governments can control who reads the document.
Option D is the correct answer.

Q3)
As per the passage from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension, the author does not mention anywhere that typewriters are messy to use.
Option D is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam
​​

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

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Reading Comprehension – Typewriters are the epitome of a technology
5 (100%) 52 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Do sports mega events
Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International
Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

Questions

Q1) The central point in the first paragraph is that the economic benefits of the Olympic Games
A) are shared equally among the three organising committees
B) accrue mostly through revenue from advertisements and ticket sales
C) accrue to host cities, if at all, only in the long term
D) are usually eroded by expenditure incurred by the host city

Q2) Sports facilities built for the Olympics are not fully utilised after the Games are over because
A) their scale and the costs of operating them are large
B) their location away from the city centre usually limits easy access.
C) the authorities do not adapt them to local conditions.
D) they become outdated having being built with little planning and under time pressure

Q3) The author feels that the Games place a burden on the host city for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A) they divert scarce urban land from more productive uses
B) they involve the demolition of residential structures to accommodate sports facilities and infrastructure
C) the finances used to fund the Games could be better used for other purposes.
D) the influx of visitors during the Games places a huge strain on the urban infrastructure.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (A)
Q3: Option (D)

Solutions

Q1
As we can get from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, a lion’s amount of revenue goes to the three committees, only advertisements generate some revenue for the host city which are dubious. So, if at all there is a benefit, it will only be in the long term.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q2
From paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that maintaining these huge stadiums takes up a lot of investment. Stadium is Beijing (Bird’s Nest) is empty and Olympic stadium in Sydney costs $30 mn a year to operate.
Option (A) is the correct answer.

Q3
From paragraphs 3 and 4 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that the land is scarce, citizens have to be relocated and the already vanishing fiscal resources could be put to better use.
Option D is not mentioned as a problem. It is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

​​

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events
5 (100%) 52 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Scientists have long recognized
Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years. That divergence between populations within a species was enforced, according to Ernst Mayr, the great evolutionary biologist of the 1940s, when a population was separated from the rest of the species by a mountain range or a desert, preventing breeding across the divide over geologic scales of time. Without the separation, gene flow was relentless. But as the separation persisted, the isolated population grew apart and speciation occurred.

In the mid-1960s, the biologist Paul Ehrlich – author of The Population Bomb (1968) – and his Stanford University colleague Peter Raven challenged Mayr’s ideas about speciation. They had studied checkerspot butterflies living in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in California, and it soon became clear that they were not examining a single population. Through years of capturing, marking and then recapturing the butterflies, they were able to prove that within the population, spread over just 50 acres of suitable checkerspot habitat, there were three groups that rarely interacted despite their very close proximity.

Among other ideas, Ehrlich and Raven argued in a now classic paper from 1969 that gene flow was not as predictable and ubiquitous as Mayr and his cohort maintained, and thus evolutionary divergence between neighbouring groups in a population was probably common. They also asserted that isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence than natural selection (when factors such as mate choice, weather, disease or predation cause better-adapted individuals to survive and pass on their successful genetic traits). For example, Ehrlich and Raven suggested that, without the force of natural selection, an isolated population would remain unchanged and that, in other scenarios, natural selection could be strong enough to overpower gene flow…

Questions

Q1) Which of the following best sums up Ehrlich and Raven’s argument in their classic 1969 paper?
A) Ernst Mayr was wrong in identifying physical separation as the cause of species diversity B) Checkerspot butterflies in the 50-acre Jasper Ridge Preserve formed three groups that rarely interacted with each other
C) While a factor, isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection
D) Gene flow is less common and more erratic than Mayr and his colleagues claimed.

Q2) All of the following statements are true according to the passage EXCEPT
A) Gene flow contributes to evolutionary divergence.
B) The Population Bomb questioned dominant ideas about species diversity
C) Evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly over time.
D) Checkerspot butterflies are known to exhibit speciation while living in close proximity

Q3) The author discusses Mayr, Ehrlich and Raven to demonstrate that
A) evolution is a sensitive and controversial topic
B) Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about evolutionary divergence are widely accepted by scientists.
C) the causes of speciation are debated by scientists
D) checkerspot butterflies offer the best example of Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about speciation

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (C)

Solutions

Q1
Acc to Ernst Mayr in paragraph 1 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, there is no gene flow when species are separated from other species. In paragraph 2, Ehrlich and Raven found out that in 50 acres of area there were 3 species of butterflies that never interacted with each other. This led them put forth the argument in 1969 paper that, while a factor, Isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Q2
In paragraph 3 CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, it is said that “isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence. So, gene flow does contribute to evolutionary divergence.
In the first line of paragraph 1, we can see that “evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly, over millions of years”.
In the second paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that even though three species of Checkerspot butterflies were living within 50 acres, they did not interact with each other which led to speciation.
Option (B) is the correct answer.

Q3
The scientists are in debate with each other over the fact the fact that speciation occurs when species are isolated from each other. Mayr concluded in the first paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage that when populations are isolated, speciation occurs. But Ehrlich and Raven observe that even though Checkerspot butterflies lived in close proximity, they did not interact with each other. This leads to a debate between the scientists.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized
5 (100%) 54 vote[s]