Verbal Ability – Parajumble – Scientists have for the first time

Verbal Ability – Parajumble – Q2

The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4,5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper order for the sentences to solve the parajumble.

Question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Verbal Ability - Parajumble - Scientists have for the first time

1. Scientists have for the first time managed to edit genes in a human embryo to repair a genetic mutation, fuelling hopes that such procedures may one day be available outside laboratory conditions.

2. The cardiac disease causes sudden death in otherwise healthy young athletes and affects about one in 500 people overall.

3. Correcting the mutation in the gene would not only ensure that the child is healthy but also prevents transmission of the mutation to future generations.

4. It is caused by a mutation in a particular gene and a child will suffer from the condition even if it inherits only one copy of the mutated gene.

5. In results announced in Nature this week, scientists fixed a mutation that thickens the heart muscle, a condition called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Answer

15243

Solution

After reading all the statements from CAT 2017 – Verbal Ability – Parajumble – Q2, we can infer that,
Statement 1 sets a premise for talking about genetic mutation. Statement 5 tells how scientists have fixed a genetic mutation. Statements 2 and 4 talk about the disease and how it is caused. Statement 3 tells how correcting the gene will help.
15243 is the right answer.

​​

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Verbal Ability – Parajumbles

Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q1: Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning and adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law – according to precedent.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q2: This has huge implications for the health care system as it operates today, where depleted resources and time lead to patients rotating in and out of doctor’s offices, oftentimes receiving minimal care or concern (what is commonly referred to as “bed side manner”) from doctors.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q3: Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations similar to ones that food undergoes in our digestive machinery.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q4: The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q5: This visual turn in social media has merely accentuated this announcing instinct of ours, enabling us with easy-to-create, easy-to-share, easy-to-store and easy-to-consume platforms, gadgets and apps.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q6: The study suggests that the disease did not spread with such intensity, but that it may have driven human migrations across Europe and Asia.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q7: The process of handing down implies not a passive transfer, but some contestation in defining what exactly is to be handed down.

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Verbal Ability – Parajumble – Scientists have for the first time
5 (100%) 53 vote[s]

Verbal Ability – Parajumble – The process of handing down

Verbal Ability – Parajumble – Q1

The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4,5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper order for the sentences to solve the parajumble.

Question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Verbal Ability - Parajumble - The process of handing down
1. The process of handing down implies not a passive transfer, but some contestation in defining what exactly is to be handed down.

2. Wherever Western scholars have worked on the Indian past, the selection is even more apparent and the inventing of a tradition much more recognizable.

3. Every generation selects what it requires from the past and makes its innovations, some more than others.
4. It is now a truism to say that traditions are not handed down unchanged, but are invented.

5. Just as life has death as its opposite, so is tradition by default the opposite of innovation.

Answer

54132

Solution

After reading all the statements from CAT 2017 – Verbal Ability – Parajumble, we can infer that, Statement 5 has to be the beginning of the passage as it introduces the terms traditions and innovation and gives a proper analogy. Statement 4 states that it is very obvious that traditions are invented.
Statement 1 and 3 say how invention happens from generation to generation.
Statement 2 talks about Western scholars who have worked on the Indian past and they have found similar analogies and is a proper way of concluding.
54132 is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Verbal Ability – Parajumbles

Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q1: Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning and adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law – according to precedent.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q2: This has huge implications for the health care system as it operates today, where depleted resources and time lead to patients rotating in and out of doctor’s offices, oftentimes receiving minimal care or concern (what is commonly referred to as “bed side manner”) from doctors.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q3: Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations similar to ones that food undergoes in our digestive machinery.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q4: The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q5: This visual turn in social media has merely accentuated this announcing instinct of ours, enabling us with easy-to-create, easy-to-share, easy-to-store and easy-to-consume platforms, gadgets and apps.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q6: The study suggests that the disease did not spread with such intensity, but that it may have driven human migrations across Europe and Asia.
Verbal Ability – Parajumbles – Q7: Scientists have for the first time managed to edit genes in a human embryo to repair a genetic mutation, fuelling hopes that such procedures may one day be available outside laboratory conditions.

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Verbal Ability – Parajumble – The process of handing down
5 (100%) 54 vote[s]

Verbal Ability – Summary – For each of the past three years

Verbal Ability – Summary – Q3

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the summary that best captures the author’s position.

Question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Verbal Ability - Summary - For each of the past three years
For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is at its highest level in 4 million years. This does not cause storms like Harvey – there have always been storms and hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico – but it makes them wetter and more powerful. As the seas warm, they evaporate more easily and provide energy to storm fronts. As the air above them warms, it holds more water vapor. For every half a degree Celsius in warming, there is about a 3% increase in atmospheric moisture content. Scientists call this the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This means the skies fill more quickly and have more to dump. The storm surge was greater because sea levels have risen 20 cm as a result of more than 100 years of human -related global warming which has melted glaciers and thermally expanded the volume of sea water.

A) The storm Harvey is one of the regular, annual ones from the Gulf of Mexico; global warming and Harvey are unrelated phenomena.
B) Global warming does not breed storms but makes them more destructive; the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, though it predicts potential increase in atmospheric moisture content, cannot predict the scale of damage storms might wreck.
C) Global warming melts glaciers, resulting in sea water volume expansion; this enables more water vapor to fill the air above faster. Thus, modern storms contain more destructive energy.
D) It is naive to think that rising sea levels and the force of tropical storms are unrelated; Harvey was destructive as global warming has armed it with more moisture content, but this may not be true of all storms.

Answer

Option (C)

Solution

In the above passage for CAT 2017 – Verbal Ability – Summary, we can infer that the author is talking about how Global Warming makes the storms stronger.
Statement C covers all the points as to why the storms are getting stronger.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Verbal Ability – Summary

Verbal Ability – Summary – Q1: A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.”
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q2: Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with corning up with a way of asking questions
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q3: North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves—they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q4: A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q5: To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch.

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Verbal Ability – Summary – For each of the past three years
5 (100%) 53 vote[s]

Verbal Ability – Summary – A translator of literary works

Verbal Ability – Summary – Q2

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the summary that best captures the author’s position.

Question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Verbal Ability - Summary - A translator of literary works
A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures. For an Indian translating works in an Indian language into English, finding satisfactory equivalents in a generalized western culture of practices and symbols in the original would be less difficult than gaining fluent control of contemporary English. When a westerner works on texts in Indian languages the interpretation of cultural elements will be the major challenge, rather than control over the grammar and essential vocabulary of the language concerned. It is much easier to remedy lapses in language in a text translated into English, than flaws of content. Since it is easier for an Indian to learn the English language than it is for a Briton or American to comprehend Indian culture, translations of Indian texts is better left to Indians.

A) While translating, the Indian and the westerner face the same challenges but they have different skill profiles and the former has the advantage.
B) As preserving cultural meanings is the essence of literary translation Indians’ knowledge of the local culture outweighs the initial disadvantage of lower fluency in English.
C) Indian translators should translate Indian texts into English as their work is less likely to pose cultural problems which are harder to address than the quality of language.
D) Westerners might be good at gaining reasonable fluency in new languages, but as understanding the culture reflected in literature is crucial, Indians remain better placed.

Answer

Option (C)

Solution

In the above passage for CAT 2017 – Verbal Ability – Summary, we can infer that, it is difficult for Indians to understand the culture of Westerners and for Westerners to understand the Indian culture. So, when translating it is better Indian translators should translate Indian texts into English as there will be less cultural problems. Language problems are easy to correct but it is very difficult to correct cultural mistakes.
Option C is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Verbal Ability – Summary

Verbal Ability – Summary – Q1: A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.”
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q2: Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with corning up with a way of asking questions
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q3: North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves—they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q4: For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q5: To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch.

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b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
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Verbal Ability – Summary – A translator of literary works
5 (100%) 53 vote[s]

Verbal Ability – Summary – “To me, a classic means”

Verbal Ability – Summary

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the summary that best captures the author’s position.

Question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Verbal Ability - Summary - To me, a classic means
To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch. The classic is not what tells me about shared humanity—or, more truthfully put, what lets me recognize myself as already present in the past, what nourishes in me the illusion that everything has been like me and has existed only to prepare the way for me. Instead, the classic is what gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness for any given generation of readers, and thereby expands for them the range of possibilities of what it means to be a human being.

A) A classic is able to focus on the contemporary human condition and a unified experience of human consciousness.
B) A classical work seeks to resist particularity and temporal difference even as it focuses on a common humanity
C) A classic is a work exploring the new, going beyond the universal, the contemporary, and the notion of a unified human consciousness
D) A classic is a work that provides access to a universal experience of the human race as opposed to radically different forms of human consciousness

Answer

Option (C)

Solution

After reading the above passage about Summary from CAT 2017 – Verbal Ability, we can infer that Classic means exploring the possibilities of human consciousness.
Option A talks exactly the opposite.
Option B also does not summarize properly as it talks about common humanity
Option D is also exactly opposite
Option C is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Verbal Ability – Summary

Verbal Ability – Summary – Q1: A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.”
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q2: Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with corning up with a way of asking questions
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q3: North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves—they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q4: For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years.
Verbal Ability – Summary – Q5: A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures.

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b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

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Verbal Ability – Summary – “To me, a classic means”
5 (100%) 54 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Do sports mega events
Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International
Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

Questions

Q1) The central point in the first paragraph is that the economic benefits of the Olympic Games
A) are shared equally among the three organising committees
B) accrue mostly through revenue from advertisements and ticket sales
C) accrue to host cities, if at all, only in the long term
D) are usually eroded by expenditure incurred by the host city

Q2) Sports facilities built for the Olympics are not fully utilised after the Games are over because
A) their scale and the costs of operating them are large
B) their location away from the city centre usually limits easy access.
C) the authorities do not adapt them to local conditions.
D) they become outdated having being built with little planning and under time pressure

Q3) The author feels that the Games place a burden on the host city for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A) they divert scarce urban land from more productive uses
B) they involve the demolition of residential structures to accommodate sports facilities and infrastructure
C) the finances used to fund the Games could be better used for other purposes.
D) the influx of visitors during the Games places a huge strain on the urban infrastructure.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (A)
Q3: Option (D)

Solutions

Q1
As we can get from CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, a lion’s amount of revenue goes to the three committees, only advertisements generate some revenue for the host city which are dubious. So, if at all there is a benefit, it will only be in the long term.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q2
From paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that maintaining these huge stadiums takes up a lot of investment. Stadium is Beijing (Bird’s Nest) is empty and Olympic stadium in Sydney costs $30 mn a year to operate.
Option (A) is the correct answer.

Q3
From paragraphs 3 and 4 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that the land is scarce, citizens have to be relocated and the already vanishing fiscal resources could be put to better use.
Option D is not mentioned as a problem. It is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species.
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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Reading Comprehension – Passage – Do sports mega events
5 (100%) 52 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - Scientists have long recognized
Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years. That divergence between populations within a species was enforced, according to Ernst Mayr, the great evolutionary biologist of the 1940s, when a population was separated from the rest of the species by a mountain range or a desert, preventing breeding across the divide over geologic scales of time. Without the separation, gene flow was relentless. But as the separation persisted, the isolated population grew apart and speciation occurred.

In the mid-1960s, the biologist Paul Ehrlich – author of The Population Bomb (1968) – and his Stanford University colleague Peter Raven challenged Mayr’s ideas about speciation. They had studied checkerspot butterflies living in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in California, and it soon became clear that they were not examining a single population. Through years of capturing, marking and then recapturing the butterflies, they were able to prove that within the population, spread over just 50 acres of suitable checkerspot habitat, there were three groups that rarely interacted despite their very close proximity.

Among other ideas, Ehrlich and Raven argued in a now classic paper from 1969 that gene flow was not as predictable and ubiquitous as Mayr and his cohort maintained, and thus evolutionary divergence between neighbouring groups in a population was probably common. They also asserted that isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence than natural selection (when factors such as mate choice, weather, disease or predation cause better-adapted individuals to survive and pass on their successful genetic traits). For example, Ehrlich and Raven suggested that, without the force of natural selection, an isolated population would remain unchanged and that, in other scenarios, natural selection could be strong enough to overpower gene flow…

Questions

Q1) Which of the following best sums up Ehrlich and Raven’s argument in their classic 1969 paper?
A) Ernst Mayr was wrong in identifying physical separation as the cause of species diversity B) Checkerspot butterflies in the 50-acre Jasper Ridge Preserve formed three groups that rarely interacted with each other
C) While a factor, isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection
D) Gene flow is less common and more erratic than Mayr and his colleagues claimed.

Q2) All of the following statements are true according to the passage EXCEPT
A) Gene flow contributes to evolutionary divergence.
B) The Population Bomb questioned dominant ideas about species diversity
C) Evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly over time.
D) Checkerspot butterflies are known to exhibit speciation while living in close proximity

Q3) The author discusses Mayr, Ehrlich and Raven to demonstrate that
A) evolution is a sensitive and controversial topic
B) Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about evolutionary divergence are widely accepted by scientists.
C) the causes of speciation are debated by scientists
D) checkerspot butterflies offer the best example of Ehrlich and Raven’s ideas about speciation

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (C)

Solutions

Q1
Acc to Ernst Mayr in paragraph 1 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, there is no gene flow when species are separated from other species. In paragraph 2, Ehrlich and Raven found out that in 50 acres of area there were 3 species of butterflies that never interacted with each other. This led them put forth the argument in 1969 paper that, while a factor, Isolation was not as important to speciation as natural selection.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Q2
In paragraph 3 CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, it is said that “isolation and gene flow were less important to evolutionary divergence. So, gene flow does contribute to evolutionary divergence.
In the first line of paragraph 1, we can see that “evolutionary changes unfold imperceptibly, over millions of years”.
In the second paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that even though three species of Checkerspot butterflies were living within 50 acres, they did not interact with each other which led to speciation.
Option (B) is the correct answer.

Q3
The scientists are in debate with each other over the fact the fact that speciation occurs when species are isolated from each other. Mayr concluded in the first paragraph CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage that when populations are isolated, speciation occurs. But Ehrlich and Raven observe that even though Checkerspot butterflies lived in close proximity, they did not interact with each other. This leads to a debate between the scientists.
Option (C) is the correct answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

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Reading Comprehension – Passage – Scientists have long recognized
5 (100%) 54 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – This year alone, more than 8,600 stores

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension - Passage - This year alone, more than 8,600 stores
This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court. Already there have been 5,300 retail closings this year… Sears Holdings—which owns Kmart—said in March that there’s “substantial doubt” it can stay in business altogether, and will close 300 stores this year. So far this year, nine national retail chains have filed for bankruptcy.

Local jobs are a major casualty of what analysts are calling, with only a hint of hyperbole, the retail apocalypse. Since 2002, department stores have lost 448,000 jobs, a 25% decline, while the number of store closures this year is on pace to surpass the worst depths of the Great Recession. The growth of online retailers, meanwhile, has failed to offset those losses, with the ecommerce sector adding just 178,000 jobs over the past 15 years. Some of those jobs can be found in the massive distribution centers Amazon has opened across the country, often not too far from malls the company helped shutter.

But those are workplaces, not gathering places. The mall is both. And in the 61 years since the first enclosed one opened in suburban Minneapolis, the shopping mall has been where a huge swath of middle-class America went for far more than shopping. It was the home of first jobs and blind dates, the place for family photos and ear piercings, where goths and grandmothers could somehow walk through the same doors and find something they all liked. Sure, the food was lousy for you and the oceans of parking lots encouraged car-heavy development, something now scorned by contemporary planners. But for better or worse, the mall has been America’s public square for the last 60 years.

So what happens when it disappears?

Think of your mall. Or think of the one you went to as a kid. Think of the perfume clouds in the department stores. The fountains splashing below the skylights. The cinnamon wafting from the food court. As far back as ancient Greece, societies have congregated around a central marketplace. In medieval Europe, they were outside cathedrals. For half of the 20th century and almost 20 years into the new one, much of America has found their agora on the terrazzo between Orange Julius and Sbarro, Waldenbooks and the Gap, Sunglass Hut and Hot Topic.

That mall was an ecosystem unto itself, a combination of community and commercialism peddling everything you needed and everything you didn’t: Magic Eye posters, wind catchers. Air Jordans. …

A growing number of Americans, however, don’t see the need to go to any Macy’s at all. Our digital lives are frictionless and ruthlessly efficient, with retail and romance available at a
click. Malls were designed for leisure, abundance, ambling. You parked and planned to spend some time. Today, much of that time has been given over to busier lives and second jobs and apps that let you swipe right instead of haunt the food court. ‘ Malls, says Harvard business professor Leonard Schlesinger, “were built for patterns of social interaction that increasingly don’t exist.”

Questions

Q1) The central idea of this passage is that:
A) the closure of mails has affected the economic and social life of middle-class America
B) the advantages of malls outweigh their disadvantages.
C) malls used to perform a social function that has been lost
D) malls are closing down because people have found alternate ways to shop.

Q2) Why does the author say in paragraph 2, ‘the massive distribution centers Amazon has opened across the country, often not too far from malls the company helped shutter’?
A) To highlight the irony of the situation
B) To indicate that mails and distribution centres are located in the same area
C) To show that Amazon is helping certain brands go online
D) To indicate that the shopping habits of the American middle class have changed.

Q3) In paragraph 1, the phrase “real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court” suggests that they
A) took brand-name anchor outlets to court
B) no longer pursue brand-name anchor outlets
C) collaborated with one another to get brand-name anchor outlets
D) were eager to get brand-name anchor outlets to set up shop m their mall

Q4) The author calls the mall an ecosystem unto itself because
A) people of all ages and from all walks of life went there
B) people could shop as well as eat in one place
C) it was a commercial space as well as a gathering place.
D) it sold things that were needed as well as those that were not.

Q5) Why does the author say that the mall has been America’s public square?
A) Malls did not bar anybody from entering the space
B) Malls were a great place to shop for a huge section of the middle class
C) Malls were a hangout place where families grew close to each other
D) Malls were a great place for everyone to gather and interact.

Q6) The author describes ‘Perfume clouds in the department stores’ in order to
A) evoke memories by painting a. picture of mails
B) describe the smells and sights of mails
C) emphasise that all brands were available under one roof.
D) show that malls smelt good because of the various stores and food court.

Answers

Q1: Option (C)
Q2: Option (A)
Q3: Option (B)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (D)
Q6: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1
Although the passage mentions the economic setback due to closing of malls, but it also says that some of these jobs can be found in the centres Amazon has opened. The main focus of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage is the social function that malls used to perform which is losing itself.
Option C is the correct answer.

Q2
Through this statement of paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, author clearly states the irony of the situation. While the malls are shutting down, Amazon is opening its distribution centres near to the malls.
Option A is the correct answer.

Q3
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can infer that now that people prefer online shopping over going to malls, real estate developers have stopped fighting over brand – name anchor outlets.
Option (B) is the right answer.

Q4
From paragraph 3 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that along with being a commercial place, malls were also a gathering place. People from all sections of the society could come and enjoy themselves.
Option (C) is the right answer.

Q5
Malls were not just a place for shopping, but they were also a place for people to just gather and interact as can be seen from paragraph 3 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage.

Q6
In paragraph 5 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, the author is reminding people of the time when they were a kid and used to go to the mall by mentioning the smells.
Option (A) is the right answer.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

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Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – This year alone, more than 8,600 stores
5 (100%) 53 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question

CAT 2017 - Forenoon slot - Reading Comprehension – Passage  – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of
I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of Geneva’s Old Town, in search of a handmade machine that changed the world more than any other invention. Near a 13th-century cathedral in this Swiss city on the shores of a lovely lake, I found what I was looking for: a Gutenberg printing press. “This was the Internet of its day — at least as influential as the iPhone,” said Gabriel de Montmollin, the director of the Museum of the Reformation, toying with the replica of Johann Gutenberg’s great invention. [Before the invention of the printing press] it used to take four monks…up to a year to produce a single book. With the advance in movable type in 15th-century Europe, one press could crank out 3,000 pages a day. Before long, average people could travel to places that used to be unknown to them — with maps! Medical information passed more freely and quickly, diminishing the sway of quacks…The printing press offered the prospect that tyrants would never be able to kill a book or suppress an idea. Gutenberg’s brainchild broke the monopoly that clerics had on scripture. And later, stirred by pamphlets from a version of that same press, the American colonies rose up against a king and gave birth to a nation.

So, a question in the summer of this 10th anniversary of the iPhone: has the device that is perhaps the most revolutionary of all time given us a single magnificent idea? Nearly every advancement of the written word through new technology has also advanced humankind. Sure, you can say the iPhone changed everything. By putting the world’s recorded knowledge in the palm of a hand, it revolutionized work, dining, travel and socializing. It made us more narcissistic — here’s more of me doing cool stuff! — and it unleashed an army of awful trolls. We no longer have the patience to sit through a baseball game without that reach to the pocket. And one more casualty of Apple selling more than a billion phones in a decade’s time: daydreaming has become a lost art.

For all of that, I’m still waiting to see if the iPhone can do what the printing press did for religion and democracy…the Geneva museum makes a strong case that the printing press opened more minds than anything else…it’s hard to imagine the French or American revolutions without those enlightened voices in print…

Not long after Steve Jobs introduced his iPhone, he said the bound book was probably headed for history’s attic. Not so fast. After a period of rapid growth in e-books, something closer to the medium for Chaucer’s volumes has made a great comeback.

The hope of the iPhone, and the Internet in general, was that it would free people in closed societies. But the failure of the Arab Spring, and the continued suppression of ideas in North Korea, China and Iran, has not borne that out… The iPhone is still young. It has certainly been “one of the most important, world-changing and successful products in history, “ as Apple CEO. Tim Cook said. But I’m not sure if the world changed for the better with the iPhone — as it did with the printing press — or merely, changed.

Questions

Q1) The printing press has been likened to the Internet for which one of the following reasons?
A) It enabled rapid access to new information and the sharing of new ideas
B) It represented new and revolutionary technology compared to the past
C) It encouraged reading among people by giving them access to thousands of books
D) It gave people access to pamphlets and literature in several languages

Q2) According to the passage, the invention of the printing press did all of the following EXCEPT
A) Promoted the spread of enlightened political views across countries
B) Gave people direct access to authentic medical information and religious texts
C) shortened the time taken to produce books and pamphlets.
D) enabled people to perform various tasks simultaneously.

Q3) Steve Jobs predicted which one’of the following with the introduction of the iPhone?
A) People would switch from reading on the Internet to reading on their iPhones.
B) People would lose interest in historical and traditional classics.
C) Reading printed books would become a thing of the past.
D) The production of e-books would eventually fall.

Q4) “I’m still waiting to see if the iPhone can do what the printing press did for religion and democracy.” The author uses which one of the following to indicate his uncertainty?
A) The rise of religious groups in many parts of the world.
B) The expansion in trolling and narcissism among users of the Internet
C) The continued suppression of free speech in closed societies
D) The decline in reading habits among those who use the device

Q5) The author attributes the French and American revolutions to the invention of the printing press because
A) maps enabled large numbers of Europeans to travel and settle in the American continent.
B) the rapid spread of information exposed people to new ideas on freedom and democracy
C) it encouraged religious freedom among the people by destroying the monopoly of religious leaders on the scriptures.
D) it made available revolutionary strategies and opinions to the people.

Q6) The main conclusion of the passage is that the new technology has
A) some advantages, but these are outweighed by its disadvantages.
B) so far not proved as successful as the printing press in opening people’s minds
C) been disappointing because it has changed society too rapidly
D) been more wasteful than the printing press because people spend more time daydreaming or surfing.

Answers

Q1: Option (A)
Q2: Option (D)
Q3: Option (C)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (B)
Q6: Option (B)

Solutions

Q1
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that, earlier, printing books took a lot of time. One book took a year and 4 monks to be produced. After the advent of Gutenberg press, not only books became easy to produce but also pamphlets, newspapers etc. came into circulation which gave birth to ideas and allowed their sharing which led to revolutions. Option (A) is the clear answer.

Q2
From paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that printing press shortened the time to produce books (one press could crank out 3000 pages per day), medical information passed freely and quickly and political views spread across countries which led to revolutions.

Q3
In paragraph 5 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, Steve Jobs says that, “Bound book was probably headed for history’s attic”

Option C is the correct answer

Q4
After going through the CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see that printing press revolutionized the society, information was available to everyone and ideas could flow freely. Have a look at paragraph 4, as per the author, iPhone has failed in doing so till now, there is continued suppression in societies like China, North Korea and Iran. He is waiting for something like this to happen.

Option (C) is the correct answer.

Q5
In paragraph 2 of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, we can see in the last lines that Gutenberg press produced pamphlets which stirred by which American colonies rose up against a king and gave birth to a nation. Rapid information exposed to people to information and ideas.

Option B is the correct answer.

Q6
In the last line of the paragraph of CAT 2017 – Reading Comprehension – Passage, author says that, “I’m not sure if the world changed for the better with the iPhone – as it did with the Printing Press – or merely changed”.

So, the conclusion of the passage is that the iPhone (new technology) is not that successful in opening people’s minds as printing press.

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – I used a smartphone GPS to find my way through the cobblestoned maze of
5 (100%) 62 vote[s]

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Understanding where you are in the world

Reading Comprehension – Passage

The passage below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.


Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings. Where humans are unique, though, with the possible exception of honeybees, is that we try to communicate this understanding the world with others. We have along history of doing this by drawing maps – the earliest version yet discovered were scrawled on cave walls 14,000 years ago. Human cultures have been drawing them on stone tablets, papyrus, paper and now computer screens ever since.

Given such a long history of human map-making, it perhaps surprising that is only within the last few hundred years that north has been consistently considered to be at the top. In fact, for much of human history, north almost never appeared at the top, according to Jerry Brotton, a map historian… “North was rarely put at the top for the simple fact that north is where darkness comes from,” he says. “West is also very unlikely o be put at the top because west is where the sun disappears.”

Confusingly, early Chinese maps seem to buck this trend. But, Brotton, says, even though they did have compasses at the time, that isn’t the reason that they placed north at the top. Early Chinese compasses were actually oriented to point south, which was considered to be more desirable than deepest darkest north. But in Chinese maps, the emperor, who lived in the north of the country was always put at the top of the map, with everyone else, his loyal subjects, looking up towards him. “In Chinese culture the Emperor looks south because it’s where the winds come from, it’s a good direction. North is not very good but you are in a position of the subjection to the emperor, so you look up to him,” says Brotton.

Given that each culture has a very different idea of who, or what, they should look upto it’s perhaps not surprising that there is very little consistency in which way early maps pointed. In ancient Egyptian times the top of the world was east, the position of sunrise. Early Islamic maps favoured south at the top because most of the early Muslim cultures were north of Mecca, so they imagined looking up (south) towards it Christian maps from the same era (called Mappa Mundi) put east at the top, towards the Garden of Eden and with Jerusalem in the centre.

So when did everyone get together and decide that north was the top? It’s tempting to put it down to European explorers like Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Megellan who were navigating by the North Star. But Brotton argues that these early explorers didn’t think of the world like that at all. “When Columbus describes the world it is in accordance with east being at the top,” he says “Columbus says he is going towards paradise, so his mentality is from a medieval mappa mundi.” We’ve got to remember, adds Brotton, that at the time, “no one knows what they are doing and where they are going.”

Questions

Q1) Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?
A) It questions on explanation about how maps are designed.
B) It corrects a misconception about the way maps are designed.
C) It critiques a methodology used to create maps
D) It explores some myths about maps

Q2) Early maps did NOT put north at the top for all the following reasons EXCEPT
A) North was the source of darkness
B) South was favoured by some emperors.
C) East and south were more important for religious reasons for some civilisations
D) East was considered by some civilisations to be a more positive direction

Q3) According to the passage, early Chinese maps placed north at the top because
A) the Chinese invented the compass and were aware of magnetic north
B) they wanted to show respect to the emperor.
C) the Chinese emperor appreciated the winds from the south.
D) north was considered the most desirable direction.

Q4) It can be inferred from the passage that European explorers like Columbus and Megellan
A) set the precedent for north-up maps.
B) navigated by the compass.
C) used an eastward orientation for religious reasons.
D) navigated with the help of early maps

Q5) Which one of the following about the northern orientation of modern maps is asserted in the passage?
A) The biggest contributory factor was the understanding of magnetic north
B) The biggest contributory factor was the role of European explorers
C) The biggest contributory factor was the influence of Christian maps
D) The biggest contributory factor is not stated in the passage

Q6) The role of natural phenomena in influencing map-making conventions is seen most clearly in
A) early Egyptian maps
B) early Islamic maps
C) early Chinese maps
D) early Christian maps

Answers

Q1: Option (B)
Q2: Option (B)
Q3: Option (B)
Q4: Option (C)
Q5: Option (D)
Q6: Option (A)

Solutions

Q1)
After going through the above passage of Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017 carefully, with particular focus on the first sentence of the second paragraph of the Reading Comprehension “Given such a long period of …. considered to be on the top” and the second and third sentences of the last paragraph “It’s tempting to.. at all” demonstrate that B is the correct choice.

Q2)
Option A: In paragraph 2 of the Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017, Jerry Brotton says, “North was rarely put at the top for the simple fact that north is where darkness comes from”. So, Option 1 can’t be the correct answer.
Option C: In paragraph 4 we can see that Early Islamic maps favored south at the top because Early Muslim cultures were North of Mecca, so they looked up (South) towards it (A religious reason)
Also, Cristians put east at the top towards Garden of Eden and Jerusalem in the center.
Option C cannot be the answer.
Option D: In the last paragraph of the above Reading Comprehension of CAT 2017, we can see that Columbus says, “I am going to paradise”, by which he means East direction
So, option D cannot be the answer.
Option B: In the entire paragraph, we can’t see anywhere that North has been favored by any emperor.

Q3
Move to paragraph 3 of the above Reading Comprehension – CAT 2017 to answer this question
Option A: In the 1st two lines, Brotton says that even though Chinese did have compasses but they actually pointed towards South. So, this is the wrong option.
Option B: Wind comes from South and emperor prefers to look in that direction. Those who are in subjection to the emperor, face towards North to look up to him.
Option (B) is the right answer, maps pointed in north to show respect to the emperor.
Option C: Yes, the emperor appreciated winds from the south but this does not tell us why Chinese maps were pointed towards North.
Option D: Instead, South was a favored direction as that is where the winds came from.
This is the wrong answer

Q4)
In the last paragraph of this CAT 2017 Reading Comprehension, we can see that Columbus says he is going towards paradise, and this comes from Mappa Mundi (Cristian Map) – which is pointed towards East due to Mecca (a religious reason). So, explorers like Cristopher and Megellan use an Eastward direction due to religious reasons.

Q5)
The passage does not mention anywhere why Modern Maps put North at the top. The only thing that is stated is, that unlike modern period, history shows us that North was rarely put at the top.
Option (D) is the correct answer as it has been nowhere mentioned in the passage why North is put at the top in modern times.

Q6)
In paragraph 4 of this CAT 2017 Reading Comprehension, we can see that Egyptians put East at the top because of the position of sunrise (a natural phenomenon). Rest all are pointed towards North, South or East because of religious reasons (Christians and Muslims) or to show respect to the emperor (Chinese)
Option A is the correct answer

Download CAT 2017 Question Paper with answers and detailed solutions in PDF

CAT 2017 Questions from Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension – Set 1: Despite their fierce reputation. Vikings may not have always been the plunderers and pillagers popular culture imagines them to be.
Reading Comprehension – Set 2: Typewriters are the epitome of a technology that has been comprehensively rendered obsolete by the digital age.
Reading Comprehension – Set 3: The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers.
Reading Comprehension – Set 4: During the frigid season…it’s often necessary to nestle under a blanket to try to stay warm.
Reading Comprehension – Set 5: Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one.
Reading Comprehension – Set 6: Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically?
Reading Comprehension – Set 7: Scientists have long recognized the incredible diversity within a species. But they thought it reflected evolutionary changes that unfolded imperceptibly, over millions of years.
Reading Comprehension – Set 8: This year alone, more than 8,600 stores could close, according to industry estimates, many of them the brand -name anchor outlets that real estate developers once stumbled over themselves to court.
Reading Comprehension – Set 9: Understanding where you are in the world is a basic survival skill, which is why we, like most species come hard-wired with specialized brain areas to create congnitive maps of our surroundings.

Other posts related to Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension Tips For CAT – Different Types of RC Passages
Reading Comprehension Tips – Writing Styles of Passages in CAT Exam
Tones of Passages for Reading Comprehension Questions in CAT Exam

Online Coaching Course for CAT Exam Preparation

a) 750+ Videos covering entire CAT syllabus
b) 2 Live Classes (online) every week for doubt clarification
c) Study Material & PDFs for practice and understanding
d) 10 Mock Tests in the latest pattern
e) Previous Year Questions solved on video

Know More about Online CAT Course

Reading Comprehension – Passage – Understanding where you are in the world
5 (100%) 61 vote[s]